Islam - A Brief Outline of Islam as Portrayed in the Noble Qur’an and Sunnah ()

Muhammad ibn Abdullah as-Saheem

 

This is an important book offering a concise introduction to Islam. It illustrates its most essential pillars, teachings, and beauties drawn from its original sources, namely the Noble Qur’an and the Prophetic Sunnah. This book is addressed to all legally competent individuals, Muslims and non-Muslims alike, in all of their respective languages, in all times and everywhere regardless of the changing circumstances.

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 Islam

A Brief Outline of Islam according to the Qur’an and the Prophetic Sunnah

This is an important book offering a concise introduction to Islam. It illustrates its most essential pillars, teachings, and beauties drawn from its original sources, namely the Noble Qur’an and the Prophetic Sunnah. This book is addressed to all legally competent individuals, Muslims and non-Muslims alike in their own respective languages, in all times and everywhere, regardless of the changing circumstances.

(A copy including proofs from the Noble Qur’an                   and the Prophetic Sunnah)


 1. Islam is the message of Allah to all people, as it is the eternal and the last of divine messages:

Islam is the message of Allah to all people as Allah Almighty says:                                                                       RAnd We have not sent you but for all mankind as a bringer of glad tidings and a warner, but most people do not know S[Surat Saba’: 28] He also says: RSay, [O Muhammad]: “O mankind, indeed I am the Messenger of Allah to you all...”   S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 158] He also says: RO mankind, the Messenger has come to you with the truth from your Lord, so believe; it is better for you. But if you disbelieve - then, indeed, to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and earth. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise S [Surat an-Nisā’: 170] Islam is the eternal and the last of all divine messages as Allah Almighty says: RMuhammad is not the father of any of your men, but the Messenger of Allah and last of the prophets. And Allah is All-Knowing of everything S [Surat al-Ahzāb: 40].

 2. Islam, as a religion, is not exclusive to a specific ethnic group, rather it is the religion of Allah to all people:

Islam, as a religion, is not exclusive to a specific ethnic group, rather it is the religion of Allah to all people. The first command in the Noble Qur’an is the saying of Allah Almighty: RO mankind, worship your Lord, Who created you and those who came before you, so that you may become righteous S[Surat al-Baqarah: 21]. He also says: RO mankind, fear your Lord, Who created you from one soul and created from it its mate and dispersed from both of them many men and women...S  [Surat an-Nisā’: 1].

Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him and his father) reported: “The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) delivered a speech on the Day of the Conquest of Makkah. He said:

‘O people, verily Allah has removed the arrogance of the pre-Islamic era from you and taking pride in their forefathers. So, now there are two types of men: a man who is righteous, pious, and honorable in the sight of Allah, and a wicked man who is miserable and insignificant in the sight of Allah. People are the children of Adam and Allah created Adam from dust. Allah said: RO mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes so that you may know one another. Indeed, the most honorable of you in the sight of Allah is the most pious of you. Indeed, Allah is All-Knowing, All-AwareS [Surat al-Hujurāt: 13]’” [Narrated by Al-Tirmidhi: 3270].

There is not a single command or law in the glorious Qur’an or a command of the honorable Messenger (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) privileging a specific group or tribe based on ethnicity, nationality, or gender.

 3. Islam is the divine message sent to complement all the messages of the previous prophets and messengers (peace be upon them) who were sent to their respective nations.

Islam is the divine message sent to complement all the messages of the previous prophets and messengers (peace be upon them) who were sent to their respective nations, as Allah Almighty says: RIndeed, We have revealed to you [O Muhammad], as We revealed to Noah and the prophets after him. And We revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, the Descendants, Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and Solomon, and to David We gave the PsalmsS  [Surat an-Nisā’: 163].

The religion that Allah revealed to Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) is the same one that Allah legislated for the previous prophets, as Allah Almighty says: RHe has ordained for you of religion that He enjoined upon Noah and that which We have revealed to you [O Muhammad], and what We enjoined upon Abraham and Moses and Jesus - to establish the religion and not be divided therein. Difficult for those who associate partners with Allah is that to which you invite them. Allah chooses for Himself whom He wills and guides to Himself whoever turns back [to Him] S [Surat ash-Shūra: 13].

The religion that Allah revealed to Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) confirms the previous scriptures, such as the Torah and the Gospel before they were distorted. Allah Almighty says: RAnd that which We have revealed to you [O Muhammad] of the Book is the truth, confirming what came before it. Indeed, Allah is All-Aware and All-Seeing of His servants S [Surat Fātir: 31].

 4. The prophets (peace be upon them) share a single religion although they came in different laws:

The religion of all the prophets (peace be upon them) is one but their legislations are different. Allah Almighty says: RAnd We have revealed to you [O Muhammad] the Book in truth, confirming that which preceded it of the Scripture and as a criterion over it. So judge between them by what Allah has revealed and do not follow their inclinations away from what has come to you of the truth. To each of you We prescribed a law and a method. Had Allah willed, He would have made you one nation [united in religion], but to test you in what He has given you; so race to [all that is] good. To Allah is your return all together, and He will [then] inform you concerning that over which you used to differS [Surat al-Mā’idah: 48] The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “I am the nearest to ‘Isa (Jesus), son of Mary, among the whole mankind in this worldly life and the Hereafter. Prophets are brothers in faith, having different mothers, yet their religion is one” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 3443].

 5. Islam, like all the prophets Nūh (Noah), Ibrāhim (Abraham), Mūsa (Moses), Sulaymān (Solomon), Dāwūd (David), and ‘Isa (Jesus) among others, calls to believing that the true Lord is Allah, the Creator, the Provider, the One Who gives life and causes death, the Owner and Planner of everything, and the All-Kind and the All-Merciful.

Islam, like all the prophets Noah, Abraham, Moses, Solomon, David, and Jesus among others, calls to believing that the true Lord is Allah, the Creator, the Provider, the One Who gives life causes death, the Owner and Planner of everything, and the All-Kind and the All-Merciful. Allah Almighty says: RO mankind, remember the favor of Allah upon you. Is there any creator other than Allah who provides for you from the heaven and earth? There is no deity except Him, so how are you then deluded?S  [Surat Fātir: 3] He also says: RSay: “Who provides for you from the heaven and earth? Or who controls hearing and sight and who brings the living out of the dead and brings the dead out of the living and who arranges [every] matter?” They will say: “Allah”, so say: “Then will you not fear Him?”S [Surat Yūnus: 31] Allah Almighty also says: RIs He [not best] Who begins the creation then repeats it and Who provides for you from the heaven and earth? Is there a deity with Allah? Say: “Produce your proof, if you are truthful.”[Surat an-Naml: 64] All the prophets and messengers were tasked with calling to the worship of Allah alone, as Allah Almighty says: RAnd We certainly sent into every nation a messenger, [saying]: “Worship Allah and avoid Tāghūt (false gods).” And among them were those whom Allah guided, and among them were those upon whom misguidance was [deservedly] decreed. So go through the earth and see how was the end of the deniersS [Surat an-Nahl: 36] Allah Almighty also says: RAnd We did not send before you any messenger except that We revealed to him that: “There is no deity except Me, so worship Me”S [Surat al-Anbiyā’: 25] Allah reported Noah (peace be upon him) saying: R...O my people, worship Allah; you have no deity other than Him. Indeed, I fear for you the punishment of a tremendous DayS [Surat al-A‘rāf: 59] Allah reported Abraham (peace be upon him) saying: RAnd Abraham, when he said to his people: “Worship Allah and fear Him. That is best for you, if you really know.”S [Surat al-‘Ankabūt: 16] Allah reported Sālih (peace be upon him) saying: R...He said: “O my people, worship Allah; you have no deity other than Him. There has come to you clear evidence from your Lord. This is the she-camel of Allah [sent] to you as a sign. So leave her to eat in Allah’s land and do not touch her with harm, lest there seize you a painful punishment”S  [Surat al-A‘rāf: 73] Allah reported Shu‘ayb (Jethro) (peace be upon him) saying: R...O my people, worship Allah; you have no deity other than Him. There has come to you clear evidence from your Lord. So fulfill the measure and weight and do not deprive people of their due and do not cause corruption on the earth after its reformation. That is better for you, if you are believersS [Surat al-A‘rāf: 85] The first thing Allah Almighty said when He spoke to Moses (peace be upon him) was: RAnd I have chosen you, so listen to what is revealed [to you].Indeed, I am Allah. There is no deity except Me, so worship Me and establish prayer for My remembranceS  [Surat Taha: 13-14] Allah informed about Moses (peace be upon him) that he sought His refuge saying: R...Indeed, I have sought refuge in my Lord and your Lord from every arrogant one who does not believe in the Day of ReckoningS [Surat Ghāfir: 27] Allah reported Jesus (peace be upon him) saying: RIndeed, Allah is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him. That is the straight pathS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 51] Allah also reported Jesus (peace be upon him) saying: R...“O Children of Israel, worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord.” Indeed, he who associates others with Allah - Allah has forbidden for him Paradise, and his refuge is Hellfire. And the wrongdoers will have no helpersS [Surat al-Mā’idah: 27] Even the Torah and the Gospel emphasize the importance of worshiping Allah alone. In the book of Deuteronomy, Moses (peace be upon him) said: “Hear, O Israel: The Lord; our God, the Lord is One.”Emphasis on monotheism is found in the Gospel of Mark where Jesus (peace be upon him) said: “The most important one,” answered Jesus, “is this: ‘Hear, O Israel: The Lord; our God, the Lord is One.’”Allah Almighty clarified that all the prophets were tasked with this great mission, namely calling people to monotheism. Allah Almighty says: RAnd We certainly sent into every nation a messenger, [saying]: “Worship Allah and shun Tāghūt (false gods).” And among them there were those whom Allah guided, and among them there were those upon whom misguidance was [deservedly] decreed...S [Surat an-Nahl: 36] And Allah Almighty said: RSay, [O Muhammad]: “Have you seen that which you invoke besides Allah? Show me what they have created of the earth; or did they have partnership in [creation of] the heavens? Bring me a scripture [revealed] before this or a [remaining] trace of knowledge, if you are truthful”S [Surat al-Ahqāf: 4] Shaykh Al-Sa‘di (may Allah have mercy upon him) said:“It becomes evident that the polytheists failed to justify their polytheism with proofs. Instead, they relied on false thoughts, poor opinions, and flawed reason proved by investigating their conditions, sciences, and deeds and by consideration of their alleged deity, whom they spent their lifetimes worshiping. Has any of those deities availed them an iota in this life or in the Hereafter?” Taysīr al-Karīm al-Mannān: 779.

 6. Allah Almighty is the Creator and the only One worthy of worship without associating anyone alongside Him.

Allah Almighty is the Creator and the only One worthy of worship without associating anyone else alongside Him. Allah Almighty says: RO mankind, worship your Lord, Who created you and those who came before you, so that you may become righteous.He Who made for you the earth a [spread out] bed and the sky a ceiling and sent down from the sky rain and brought forth thereby fruits as provision for you. So do not ascribe to Allah equals while you know [that there is nothing similar to Him] S [Surat al-Baqarah: 21-22] The One Who created us and the generations before us, made the earth a bed spread out and the sky a ceiling for us, sent down from the sky rain, and brought forth thereby fruits as provision for us is the only One Who deserves to be worshiped. Allah Almighty says: RO mankind, remember the favor of Allah upon you. Is there any creator other than Allah who provides for you from the heaven and earth? There is no deity except Him, so how are you then deluded? S [Surat Fātir: 3] The One Who creates and provides for us is the only One Who deserves to be worshiped. Allah Almighty says: RThat is Allah, your Lord; there is no deity except Him, the Creator of all things, so worship Him. And He is Disposer of all thingsS [Surat al-An‘ām: 102] Anyone worshiped besides Allah is unworthy of worship because he does not possess an atom’s weight in the heaven or on earth. He is not partner of Allah, nor a helper, nor a supporter; so, how could such an alleged deity be called upon or taken as partner alongside Allah?! Allah Almighty says: RSay, [O Muhammad]: “Invoke those you claim [as deities] besides Allah.” They do not possess an atom’s weight in the heavens or on earth, and they do not have therein any partnership [with Him], nor is there for Him from among them any assistantS [Surat Saba’: 22] Allah Almighty is the One Who created these living beings out of nonexistence. Their very existence is a proof of His existence, Lordship, and deity. Allah Almighty says: RAnd of His signs is that He created you from dust; then, suddenly you were human beings dispersing [throughout the earth].And of His signs is that He created for you from yourselves mates so that you may find tranquility in them; and He placed between you affection and mercy. Indeed, there are signs in this for people who reflect.And among His signs is the creation of the heavens and earth and the diversity of your languages and your colors. Indeed, there are signs in this for those of knowledge.And among His signs is your sleep by night and day and your seeking of His bounty. Indeed, there are signs in this for people who listen.And of His signs is [that] He shows you the lightning [causing] fear and hope, and He sends down rain from the sky by which He brings revives the earth after its lifelessness. Indeed, there are signs in this for people who understand.And among His signs is that the heaven and earth sustain by His command. Then when He calls you with a [single] call from the earth, immediately you will come forth.And to Him belongs whoever is in the heavens and earth. All are to Him devoutly obedient.And it is He Who begins creation; then He repeats it, and that is [even] easier for Him...S [Surat ar-Rūm: 20-27] Nimrod denied the existence of his Lord, so Abraham (peace be upon him) said to him, as reported by Allah: R...Abraham said: “Indeed, Allah brings up the sun from the east, so bring it up from the west.” So the disbeliever was dumbfounded, and Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.S [Surat al-Baqarah: 258] In the same manner, Abraham (peace be upon him) argued his case by showing that Allah is the One Who guides him, feeds him, gives him drink, cures him, causes him to die and brings him to life. Allah reported him saying: RWho created me, and it is He Who guides me.And it is He Who feeds me and provides for me drink.And when I am ill, it is He Who cures me.And Who will cause me to die and then bring me to lifeS [Surat ash-Shu‘arā’: 78-81] Allah reported Moses’s argument with Pharaoh stating that the former’s Lord is the One: R...Who gave everything its form and then guided itS [Surat Taha: 50] Allah subjected everything in the heavens and on earth for human beings and blessed them with blessings so that they would worships him and refrain from disbelief. Allah Almighty says: RDo you not see that Allah has made subservient to you whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth and amply bestowed upon you His favors, [both] apparent and unapparent? But among people are those who dispute about Allah without knowledge or guidance or an enlightening BookS [Surat Luqmān: 20] Just as Allah subjected everything in the heavens and on earth for the human being, He created and gave him everything he would need such as the hearing, sight, and heart to learn the knowledge that would benefit and guide him to his Lord and Creator. Allah Almighty says: RAnd Allah has extracted you from the wombs of your mothers not knowing anything, and He made for you hearing and vision and intellect so that you may be gratefulS [Surat an-Nahl: 78].

Allah Almighty created all of those worlds as well as the human being and gave him everything he would need such as limbs and powers. Then He granted him everything that would aid him in worshiping Allah and in populating this earth. Afterward, Allah subjected to him everything in the heavens and on earth.

Allah used His creation to prove His Lordship that mandates His right to be solely worshiped. Allah Almighty says: RSay: “Who provides for you from the heaven and earth? Or who controls hearing and sight and who brings the living out of the dead and brings the dead out of the living, and who manages [every] matter?” They will say: “Allah”, say: “Then will you not fear Him?”S [Surat Yūnus: 31] Allah Almighty says: RSay [O Muhammad]: “Have you seen that which you invoke besides Allah? Show me what they have created of earth; or did they have partnership in [creation of] the heavens? Bring me a scripture [revealed] before this or a [remaining] trace of knowledge, if you are truthful.”S [Surat al-Ahqāf: 4] He also says: RHe created the heavens without pillars that you can see and has set on the earth firmly mountains, lest it should shake with you, and dispersed therein from every creature. And We sent down rain from the sky and grow therein [plants] of every noble kind. This is the creation of Allah. So show Me what those other than Him have created. Rather, the wrongdoers are in clear misguidanceS [Surat Luqmān: 10-11] Allah Almighty says: ROr were they created by nothing, or were they the creators [of themselves]?Or did they create the heavens and earth? Rather, they are not certain.Or do they have the treasuries of your Lord? Or are they the controllers [of them]?S  [Surat at-Tūr: 35-37] Shaykh Al-Sa‘di said:“This constitutes a proof against them, leaving them with no choice but to submit to the truth or veer away from what is required by reason and religion.”Tafsīr ibn Sa‘di: 816.

 7. Allah is the Creator of everything in the universe, both of the visible and the invisible. Everything other than Him is created by Him. He created the heavens and earth in six days.

Allah Almighty is the Creator of everything in the universe, both the visible and the invisible. Everything besides Him is created by Him. Allah Almighty says: RSay: “Who is the Lord of the heavens and earth?” Say: “Allah.” Say: “Have you then taken besides Him allies not possessing [even] for themselves any benefit or harm?” Say: “Is the blind equivalent to the seeing? Or is darkness equivalent to light? Or have they attributed to Allah partners who created like His creation so that the creation [of each] seemed similar to them?” Say: “Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the One, the Superb Vanquisher.”S [Surat ar-Ra‘d: 16] And Allah Almighty also says: R...And He creates that which you do not know.S [Surat an-Nahl: 8] Allah created the heavens and earth in six days. Allah Almighty says: RIt is He Who created the heavens and earth in six days and then rose over the Throne. He knows what penetrates into the earth and what emerges from it and what descends from the heaven and what ascends therein; and He is with you wherever you are. And Allah is All-Seeing of what you doS [Surat al-Hadīd: 4] He also says: RAnd indeed We created the heavens and earth and what is between them in six days and no fatigue touched Us.S [Surat Qāf: 38].

 8. Allah Almighty has no partner in His dominion, creation, disposal of affairs, or His right to be worshiped.

Allah Almighty is the Owner of Sovereignty. He has no partner in His creation, dominion, or disposal of affairs. Allah Almighty says: RSay, [O Muhammad]: “Have you seen that which you invoke besides Allah? Show me what they have created of earth; or did they have partnership in [creation of] the heavens? Bring me a scripture [revealed] before this or a [remaining] trace of knowledge, if you are truthful.”[Surat al-Ahqāf: 4] Shaykh Al-Sa‘di (may Allah have mercy upon him) said:“It means ask those who associated partners with Allah and took deities that can neither harm nor benefit, nor can they give life nor cause death, let alone the right to be worshiped - just to emphasize the inability of their idols and how such idols are unworthy of worship - to Rshow me what they have created of the earth; or did they have partnership in [the creation of] the heavens?S Have they created anything from the celestial bodies or the earth? Have they created mountains? Have they streamlined rivers? Have they resurrected an animal? Have they caused trees to grow? Have they aided in any manner in the creation of any of these? Certainly, they have done nothing by their own admission, let alone others. This is a decisive logical proof that the worship of anything besides Allah is false.The next step was mentioning the absence of textual evidence thus saying: RBring me a scripture [revealed] before thisS Book calling to polytheism Ror a [remaining] trace of knowledgeS inherited from the messengers commanding polytheism. It is well-known that they are incapable of producing proof that any of the messengers advocated polytheism. Exactly the opposite, we can guarantee with complete certainty that all of the messengers called to monotheism and to the worship of their Lord alone and prohibited associating partners with Him. This is their greatest trace of knowledge we can identify them with.”Tafsīr Ibn Sa‘di: 779.Allah Almighty is the Lord of the dominion and none has a share in His dominion. Allah Almighty says: RSay: “O Allah, Lord of the dominion, You give the dominion to whom You will and take it away from whom You will. You honor whom You will and humble whom You will. In Your hand is [all] good. Indeed, You are competent over all thingsS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 26] Allah Almighty expressed His full sovereignty on the Day of Judgment saying: ROn the Day when they come forth nothing about them will be concealed from Allah. To whom belongs [all] the dominion this Day? To Allah, the One, the Superb VanquisherS [Surat Ghāfir: 16] Allah Almighty has no partner in His dominion, creation, disposal of affairs, or the right to be worshiped. Allah Almighty says: RAnd say: “Praise to Allah, Who has not taken a son and has had no partner in [His] dominion and has no [need of a] protector out of weakness; and glorify Him with [great] glorification.”S [Surat al-Isrā’: 111] Allah Almighty also says: RHe to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and earth, and Who has not taken a son and has not had a partner in dominion, and has created everything and determined it preciselyS [Surat al-Furqān: 2] He is the Owner while everything else is owned by Him. He is the Creator while everything else is created by Him. He is the One who manages all affairs. Therefore, a deity with this description must be worshiped while worshiping other than Him is indicative of flawed reason and mounts to polytheism that ruins one’s life and Hereafter. Allah Almighty says: RThey say: “Be Jews or Christians, you will be guided.” Say: “Rather, [we follow] the religion of Abraham, inclining towards truth, and he was not of the polytheists.”S [Surat al-Baqarah: 135] Allah Almighty also says: RAnd who is better in religion than one who submits himself to Allah while being a doer of good and follows the religion of Abraham, inclining towards truth? And Allah took Abraham as an close friendS [Surat an-Nisā’: 125] Allah Almighty clarified that anyone following a religion other than that of Abraham (peace be upon him) will befool himself. Allah Almighty says: RAnd who would be averse to the religion of Abraham except one who makes a fool of himself. And We had chosen him in this world, and in the Hereafter he will be among the righteousS [Surat al-Baqarah: 130].

 9. Allah Almighty begot no son nor was He begotten. None is equivalent or similar to Him.

Allah Almighty begot no son nor was He begotten. None is equivalent or similar to Him. Allah Almighty says: RSay: “He is Allah, the One,Allah, the Eternal Refuge.He neither begets nor is He begotten.Nor is there any equivalent to Him.”S [Surat al-Ikhlās: 1-4] Allah Almighty also says: RLord of the heavens and earth and whatever is between them - so worship Him and be steadfast in His worship. Do you know anyone similarity to Him?S [Surat Maryam: 65] Allah Almighty says: R[He is] Creator of the heavens and earth. He has made for you mates from among yourselves, and among the cattle, mates; He multiplies you thereby. There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearing, the All-SeeingS [Surat ash-Shūra: 11].

 10. Allah Almighty does not assume any physical form nor is He embodied in any of His creation:

Allah Almighty does not assume any physical form nor is He embodied in any of His creation, because Allah is the Creator while everything else is created. He is the One who will eternally last while everything else will die. Everything belongs to Him and He is the Owner of everything. Allah does not incarnate in any of His creation nor does any of His creation incarnate in His essence; Exalted and Glorified is He. Allah is greater and far exalted above everything else. Allah denied the claim that He incarnated in Jesus’s form by saying: RThey have certainly disbelieved who say that Allah is the Christ, son of Mary. Say: “Then who could prevent Allah if He were to destroy Christ, son of Mary, or his mother or everyone on earth?” And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and earth and whatever is between them. He creates what He wills, and Allah is competent over all thingsS [Surat al-Mā’idah: 17] Allah Almighty also says: RAnd to Allah belongs the east and the west. So wherever you [might] turn, there is the Face of Allah. Indeed, Allah is All-Bountiful, All-Knowing.They say: “Allah has begotten a son.” Exalted is He! Rather, to Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and earth. All are devoutly obedient to Him,Originator of the heavens and earth. When He decrees a matter, He only says to it: “Be”, and it isS  [Surat al-Baqarah: 115-117] Allah Almighty also says: RAnd they say: “The Most Compassionate has begotten a son.”You have said something atrocious.The heavens almost rupture therefrom and the earth splits asunder and the mountains collapse in devastationthat they attribute a son to the Most Compassionate.And it is not appropriate for the Most Compassionate to beget a son.There is no one in the heavens and earth but that he comes to the Most Compassionate in obedience.He has enumerated them and counted them a [full] counting.And all of them are coming to Him on the Day of Judgment aloneS [Surat Maryam: 88-95] And Allah Almighty said: RAllah - there is no deity except Him, the Ever-Living, the All-Sustainer of [all] existence. Neither drowsiness overtakes Him nor sleep. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth. Who is it that can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is before them and what will be after them, and they encompass not a thing of His knowledge except for what He wills. His Kursī [Foot-stool] extends the heavens and earth, and their preservation tires Him not. And He is the Most High, the MagnificentS [Surat al-Baqarah: 255] A deity with such description and a creation with such description, how could it be possible that Allah incarnates any of His creation, takes him as a son, or make him as god with Him?

 11. Allah Almighty is Kind and Merciful to His servants, therefore, He sent messengers and revealed scriptures.

Allah Almighty is Kind and Merciful to His servants. Out of such mercy, He sent them the messengers and revealed the scriptures to bring them out of the darkness of polytheism and disbelief to the light of monotheism and guidance. Allah Almighty says: RIt is He Who sends down upon His Servant [Muhammad] verses of clear evidence that He may bring you out from darknesses into the light. And indeed, Allah is All-Kind and Most Merciful to youS [Surat al-Hadīd: 9] Allah Almighty also says: RAnd We have not sent you [O Muhammad], except as a mercy to the worldsS [Surat al-Anbiyā’: 107] Allah commanded His Prophet to inform His servants that He is the All-Forgiving, the Most Merciful. Allah Almighty says: R[O Muhammad], inform My servants that I am the All-Forgiving, the Most MercifulS [Surat al-Hijr: 49] One of the aspects of His kindness and mercy is alleviating distress and conferring blessings upon His servants. Allah Almighty says: RAnd if Allah should touch you with adversity, there is none to remove it except Him; and if He intends for you good, there is none to repel His bounty. He causes it to reach whom He wills of His servants. And He is the All-Forgiving, the Most MercifulS  [Surat Yūnus: 107].

 12. Allah is the Most Merciful Lord. He, alone, will hold His creation accountable on the Day of Judgment when He resurrects them all from their graves. Each individual will be recompensed according to his deeds. Whoever does good deeds, while being a believer will enjoy an eternal bliss, whereas anyone who disbelieves and sins will suffer the painful punishment in the Hereafter.

Allah is the Most Merciful Lord. He, alone, will hold His creation accountable on the Day of Judgment when He resurrects them all from their graves. Each individual will be recompensed depending on his deeds. Whoever does good deeds, while being a believer, will enjoy an eternal bliss, whereas anyone who disbelieves and sins will suffer the painful punishment on the Day of Judgment. What proves the perfect justice, wisdom, and mercy of Allah towards His creation is that He made this life the abode of actions while another abode is designated for recompense, reckoning, and reward, so that the doer of good will reap the reward of his goodness while the wrongdoer, the oppressor and the transgressor will suffer the punishment of their oppression. Because some people may deem it unlikely, Allah has provided many proofs indicating that resurrection is an indisputable fact. Allah Almighty says: RAnd of His signs is that you see the earth still, but when We send down upon it rain, it quivers and grows. Indeed, He Who has given it life is the Giver of Life to the dead. Indeed, He is Competent over all thingsS  [Surat Fussilat: 39] Allah Almighty also says: RO People, if you should be in doubt about the Resurrection, then indeed We created you from dust, then from a sperm-drop, then from a clinging clot, and then from a lump of flesh, formed and unformed - that We may show you. And We settle in the wombs whom We will for a specified term, then We bring you out as a child, and then [We develop you] that you may reach your [time of] maturity. And among you is he who dies, and among you is he who is left to reach the most decrepit [old] age so that he knows nothing, after having knowledge. And you see the earth barren, but when We send down upon it rain, it quivers and swells and grows [something] of every beautiful kindS [Surat al-Hajj: 5] In this verse, Allah provided three logical proofs of resurrection. They are:

1. Allah Almighty created the human being the first time from dust. Since He created him from dust, He is certainly capable of bringing him back to life when he becomes dust.

2. The one who is capable of creating a human being out of a sperm-drop is definitely capable of bringing him back to life after his death.

3. The one who gave life to earth after it was dead is definitely capable of bringing people alive after their death. This verse contains a great proof of the miraculousness of the Qur’an, as it contained three incredibly logical proofs on such a great issue, though the verse itself is not long.

Allah Almighty also says: ROn the Day when We will fold the heaven like the folding of a [written] sheet for the records. As We began the first creation, We will repeat it. [That is] a promise binding upon Us. Indeed, We will do itS [Surat al-Anbiyā’: 104] Allah Almighty also says: RAnd he presents for Us an example and forgets his own creation. He says: “Who will give life to bones while they are disintegrated?”Say: “He will give them life Who produced them the first time; and He is All-Knowing of all creation.”S [Surat Yasīn: 78-79] Allah Almighty also says: RAre you a more difficult creation or is the heaven? Allah constructed it.He raised its ceiling and proportioned it.And He darkened its night and made its day bright.And after that He spread the earth.He extracted from it its water and its pasture,And the mountains He set firmlyS [Surat an-Nāzi‘āt: 27-32] Allah clarified that the creation of the human being is not as difficult as the creation of the heavens and earth. So it is obvious that the One Who is capable of creating the heavens and earth is definitely capable of bringing the human being back to life.

 13. Allah Almighty created Adam from dust and made his offspring reproduce after him. So, all people are equal in terms of their origin and there is no superiority for a particular gender over the other or an ethnic group over another except by means of piety.

Allah Almighty created Adam from dust and made his offspring reproduce after him. So, all people are equal in terms of their origin and there is no superiority for a particular gender over the other or an ethnic group over another except by means of piety. Allah Almighty says: RO mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes so that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most pious of you. Indeed, Allah is All-Knowing, All-AwareS [Surat al-Hujurāt: 13] Allah Almighty also says: RAnd Allah created you from dust, then from a sperm-drop; then He made you mates. And no female conceives nor does she give birth except with His knowledge. And no aged person is granted [additional] life nor is his lifespan lessened but that it is in a Register. Indeed, that is easy for AllahS [Surat Fātir: 11] Allah Almighty also says: RIt is He Who created you from dust, then from a sperm-drop, then from a clinging clot; then He brings you out as a child; then [He develops you] that you reach your [time of] maturity, then [further] that you become elders. And among you is he who dies before [that], so that you reach a specified term; and perhaps you will use reasonS [Surat Ghāfir: 67] Allah Almighty showed that He created the Messiah by the universal command in the same manner He created Adam from dust. Allah Almighty says: RIndeed, the example of Jesus before Allah is like that of Adam; He created Him from dust, then He said to him: “Be,” and he wasS  [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 59] In point number (2), I mentioned that the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) clarified that people are equal and there is none superior to another except by piety.

 14. Each newborn is born on Fitrah (a sound natural disposition).

Each newborn is born with a sound natural disposition. Allah Almighty says: RSo direct your face towards the religion, inclining to truth. [Adhere to] the Fitrah of Allah upon which He has created [all] people. There can be no change in the creation of Allah. That is the correct religion, but most of the people do not knowS [Surat ar-Rūm: 30] The “truth” is the religion of Abraham (peace be upon him). Allah Almighty says: RThen We revealed to you [O Muhammad], to follow the religion of Abraham, inclining toward truth; and he was not of the polytheistsS [Surat an-Nahl: 123] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said:“There is no child but is born on Fitrah (sound natural inclination to the true religion). It is his parents who make him a Jew or a Christian or a Magian, just as beasts produce their young with their limbs perfect. Do you see anything deficient in them?”Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “R...The Fitrah of Allah upon which He has created [all] people. There can be no change in the creation of Allah. That is the correct religion, but most people do not knowS [Surat ar-Rūm: 30] [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 4775] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said:“Verily, my Lord has commanded me to teach you that which you do not know of what He has taught me today: ‘Whatever wealth I have conferred upon My servant is lawful for him. I have created all My servants with a sound natural inclination to worship Me alone, but the devils came to them and turned them away from their religion, they made unlawful for them what I have made lawful, and commanded them to associate with Me in worship that for which I did not send down any authority.’” [Narrated by Muslim: 2865].

 15. No human being is born with an inherent sin nor does he inherit someone else’s sin.

No human being is born with an inherent sin nor does he inherit someone else’s sin. Allah Almighty informed us that Adam (peace be upon him) regretted and repented after he and his wife Eve disobeyed the divine command and ate from the tree. He asked Allah for forgiveness and Allah inspired him to say good words and He accepted their repentance as a result. Allah Almighty says: RAnd We said: “O Adam, dwell, you and your wife, in Paradise and eat therefrom in [ease and] abundance from wherever you wish. But do not approach this tree, lest you be among the wrongdoers.”But Satan caused them to slip out of it and took them out of that [condition] in which they were. We said: “Go down, [all of you], as enemies to one another, and you will have upon the earth a place of settlement and provision for some time.”Then Adam received from his Lord [some] words, and He accepted his repentance. Indeed, it is He Who is the Accepting of Repentance, the Most Merciful.We said: “Go down from it, all of you. When guidance comes to you from Me, whoever follows My guidance - there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve”S [Surat al-Baqarah: 35-38] Because Allah accepted the repentance of Adam (peace be upon him), then he was no longer carrying the burden of that sin nor was his offspring because the sin was forgiven by repentance. Moreover, the individual, in principle, is not responsible for the sins of others. Allah Almighty says: R...Every soul is responsible for what it earns, and no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another. Then to your Lord is your return, and He will inform you concerning that over which you used to differS [Surat al-An‘ām: 164] Allah Almighty also says: RWhoever is guided is only guided for his own good. And whoever errs only errs against himself. And no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another. And never would We punish until We sent a messengerS [Surat al-Isrā’: 15] Allah Almighty also says: RAnd no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another. And if a heavily laden soul calls [another] to [carry some of] its load, nothing of it will be carried, even if he should be a close relative. You can only warn those who fear their Lord unseen and establish prayer. And whoever purifies himself only purifies himself for his own good. And to Allah is the [final] returnS [Surat Fātir: 18].

 16. The ultimate end of creating mankind is to worship Allah alone:

The ultimate end of creating mankind is to worship Allah alone. Allah Almighty says: RAnd I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship MeS [Surat adh-Dhāriyāt: 56].

 17. Islam has honored the human being, male and female, and has guaranteed for him all of his rights. It has made him responsible for all of his choices, actions, and behavior, thus holding him accountable for any act that harms him or others.

Islam has honored the human being, both males and females. Allah Almighty created the human to be His vicegerent on earth. Allah Almighty says: RAnd [remember] when your Lord said to the angels: “Indeed, I will make upon the earth a successive authority”...S [Surat al-Baqarah: 30] This honor extends to all of the offspring of Adam. Allah Almighty says: RAnd We have certainly honored the children of Adam and carried them on the land and sea and provided for them of the good things and preferred them immensely over much of what We have createdS [Surat al-Isrā’: 70] Allah Almighty also says: RWe have certainly created man in the best stature;S [Surat at-Tīn: 4] Allah prohibited the human from surrendering himself in humiliation to a deity or a master other than Allah. Allah Almighty says: RAnd among people there are some who take others as equals to Allah: they love them as they should love Allah. But those who believe are stronger in their love for Allah. If only the wrongdoers could see the punishment, they would surely realize that all power belongs to Allah and that Allah is severe in punishment. [Consider] when those who were followed, they will disown their followers when they see the punishment, and all ties between them will be cut offS [Surat al-Baqarah: 165-166] Allah Almighty clarified the state of the followers and the ones followed in falsehood saying: RThose who were arrogant will say to those who were oppressed: “Did we avert you from guidance after it had come to you? Rather, you were wicked.”Those who were oppressed will say to those who were arrogant, “Rather, [it was your] conspiracy of night and day when you were ordering us to disbelieve in Allah and to set up rivals to Him.” They will hide their remorse when they see the punishment, and We will put shackles around the necks of those who disbelieved. Will they be recompensed except for what they used to do?S [Surat Saba’: 32-33] Out of Allah’s perfect justice on the Day of Judgment, He will make the misguiding preachers and scholars bear the burden of their sins as well as the burdens of the sins of those whom they misguided by speaking without knowledge. Allah Almighty says: RThey will bear their burdens in full on the Day of Resurrection and of the burdens of those whom they misled without knowledge. How terrible is what they will bear!S [Surat an-Nahl: 25] Islam has guaranteed man his full rights in this world and in the Hereafter, and the greatest of those rights is the right of Allah on people and the right of people on Allah.Mu‘ādh (may Allah be pleased with him) reported: “I was riding behind the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him). He said: ‘O Mu‘ādh!’ I replied: ‘At your beck and call.’ He repeated it three times and said: ‘Do you know what is Allah’s right upon His servants?’ I said: ‘No.’ He said: ‘Allah’s right upon His servants is that they worship Him alone and associate none with Him in worship.’ Then he proceeded for a while and then said: ‘O Mu‘ādh!’ I replied: ‘At your beck and call.’ He said: ‘Do you know what is the right of the servants upon Allah if they do that? That He will not punish them.’” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 6840] Islam has also guaranteed man the protection of his true religion and his children, wealth, and honor.The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Verily Allah has made your blood, your properties, and your honor as sacred and inviolable as the sanctity of this day of yours, in this month of yours and in this town of yours.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 6501] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) announced this great covenant in his Farewell Hajj that was attended by more than a hundred thousand Companions. He stressed the importance of this command on the Day of Nahr (day of slaughtering sacrificial animals, 10th of Dhul-Hijjah). Furthermore, Islam has made man responsible for all of his choices, deeds, and behavior. Allah Almighty says: RAnd [for] every person We have bound his deeds upon his neck, and We will produce for him on the Day of Judgment a record which he will encounter spread open. [It will be said]: “Read your record. Sufficient is yourself against you this Day as accountant.”S [Surat al-Isrā’: 13-14] In other words, any good or bad deed is bound by its doer and cannot be transferred to someone else because the individual cannot be held accountable for someone else’s deeds, nor will anyone else be held accountable for his deeds. Allah Almighty says: RO mankind, indeed you are laboring toward your Lord with [great] exertion and will meet itS [Surat al-Inshiqāq: 6] And Allah Almighty said: RWhoever does righteousness - it is for his [own] soul; and whoever does evil [does so] against it. And your Lord is not ever unjust to [His] servantsS [Surat Fussilat: 46] Islam holds one accountable for any act that harms himself or others. Allah Almighty says: RAnd whoever commits a sin only earns it against himself. And Allah is ever All-Knowing and All-WiseS [Surat an-Nisā’: 111] Allah Almighty also says: RFor this reason We ordained for the Children of Israel that whoever kills a person – unless in retribution for murder or corruption in the land – it is as if he killed all mankind; and whoever saves a life, it is as if he saved the life of all mankindS [Surat al-Mā’idah: 32] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “No soul gets killed wrongfully without the first son of Adam taking share of the guilt for its blood because he was the first to commit a murder.” [Narrated by Muslim: 5150].

 18. Islam made men and women equal in terms of their respective responsibilities, reward, and punishment.

Islam made men and women equal in terms of their respective responsibilities, reward, and punishment. Allah Almighty says: RAnd whoever does righteous deeds, whether male or female, while being a believer - those will enter Paradise and will not be wronged, [even as much as] the speck on a date-stoneS [Surat an-Nisā’: 124] Allah Almighty also says: RWhoever does righteous deed, whether male or female, while being a believer – We will certainly grant him a good life, and will reward them according to the best of what they used to doS [Surat an-Nahl: 97] Allah Almighty also says: RWhoever does an evil deed will only be recompensed with its like, and whoever does good – whether male or female – while he is a believer, they will enter Paradise, wherein they will be given provision without measureS [Surat Ghāfir: 40] Allah Almighty also says: RMuslim men and women, believing men and women, obedient men and women, truthful men and women, patient men and women, humble men and women, charitable men and women, fasting men and women, and the men and women who guard their chastity, and men and women who remember Allah much – Allah has prepared for them forgiveness and a great rewardS  [Surat al-Ahzāb: 35].

 19. Islam honors women and considers them the counterparts of men. It also mandated financial provision on the man if he is capable. The father is obligated to spend on his daughter, the son on his mother if he is adult and capable, and the husband on his wife.

Islam considers women the counterparts of men.The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Women are the counterparts of men.” [Narrated by Al-Tirmidhi: 113] As an aspect of honoring women, Islam has made it obligatory on the son to provide for his mother if he is financially capable.The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “The hand which gives is the upper hand. Start with those for whom you are responsible: your mother, your father, your sister, your brother, then your relatives according to their closeness to you.” [Narrated by Ahmad] The status of the parents [in Islam] will be discussed further in point number (29). Another aspect of honoring women in Islam is that the husband is obligated to provide for his wife if he is financially capable. Allah Almighty says: RLet the wealthy man spend according to his means. As for the one with limited resources, he should spend according to whatever Allah has given him. Allah does not burden any soul beyond what He has given him. Allah will bring about ease after hardshipS [Surat at-Talāq: 7] A man asked the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him): “What is the right of the wife on her husband?” He replied: “You feed her when you eat and provide clothing for her when you do so for yourself, and neither slap her face nor speak to her in a foul language.” [Narrated by Ahmad] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) explained some of the rights of wives on their husbands saying: “You [men] are responsible for providing them with food and clothing in a fitting manner.” [Narrated by Muslim] The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) also said: “It is a sufficient sin for man to neglect those whom he maintains.” [Narrated by Ahmad] Al-Khattābi stated: “‘Whom he maintain’ applies to anyone whose provision is obligatory on him. In other words, if a person wishes to spend money in charity, he should not do so with the money barely sufficient to cover the expenses of his family. Though one seeks the reward in giving out charity, but, in this case, it turns out to be a sin because he would drive his family into deprivation. ”Moreover, the father is required to provide for his daughter, which is yet another aspect of honoring women in Islam. Allah Almighty says: RMothers may breastfeed their children for two full years, for those who wish to complete the full term of breastfeeding. It is the obligation upon the father of the child that he provides food and clothing [for the mothers] with fairness...S [Surat al-Baqarah: 233] In this verse, Allah enjoined upon the father to feed and provide clothing for his newborn child according to what is acceptable. Allah Almighty says: R...And if they breastfeed for you, then give them their payment...S [Surat at-Talāq: 6] In this verse, Allah made the fare of breastfeeding the child obligatory on the father, which indicates that the father is required to provide for his child, male or female. In the following Hadīth, there is evidence that financial maintenance of the wife and her children is the responsibility of the father. ‘Ā’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) reported: “Hind told the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) that Sufyān (her husband) is a stingy man and she needs to take from his money [to support herself and the children]. The Prophet answered: ‘Take what is sufficient for you and your children according to what is acceptable. ’”[Narrated by Al-Bukhāri] The honorable Prophet highlighted the virtue of providing for daughters and sisters. He (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Anyone who financially maintains two or three daughters or two or three sisters until they are married or until he dies will be with me like this - and he pointed with his middle and index fingers.” [Al-Silsilah al-Sahīhah: 296].

 20. Death is not the ultimate end but rather a transition from the abode of work to the abode of recompense. Death befalls both the body and the soul such that the latter disengages from the body at the time of death, only to return to it following the resurrection on the Day of Judgment. The soul does not move to another body after death nor is it reincarnated in a different body.

Death is not the ultimate end. Allah Almighty says: RSay: “The angel of death, who has been entrusted with you, will take you. Then to your Lord you will be returned.”S [Surat as-Sajdah: 11] Death befalls both the body and the soul such that the latter disengages from the body at the time of death, only to return to it following the resurrection on the Day of Judgment. Allah Almighty says: RAllah takes away the souls at the time of their death and of those who do not die during their sleep. He withholds the souls of those on whom He decreed has death, and releases others until an appointed term. Indeed, there are signs in this for people who reflectS [Surat az-Zumar: 42] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “When the soul is taken, the sight follows it.” [Narrated by Muslim: 920] After death, the human being moves from the world of work to the world of recompense. Allah Almighty says: RTo Him is your return all together. Allah’s promise will surely come true. He originates the creation then brings it back, so that He may justly reward those who believe and do righteous deeds. But for those who disbelieve there will be a drink of scalding water and a painful punishment because of their disbeliefS [Surat Yūnus: 4].

The soul does not move to another body after death nor is it reincarnated in a different body. The claim of reincarnation is not the product of either reason or perception. In addition, there is no single text reported from the prophets (peace be upon them) that attests to this doctrine.

 21. Islam calls to believing in the major pillars of faith: belief in Allah and His angels, the scriptures such as the Torah, the Gospel, the Psalms (before their distortion), and the Qur’an. It also calls to believing in all the prophets and messengers (peace be upon them) and that Muhammad as their seal. Furthermore, Islam calls to believing in the Last Day because assuming this worldly life is the end, life and existence would have been absolutely purposeless. It also calls to believing in destiny and fate.

Islam calls to believing in the major pillars of faith, to which all prophets and messengers called, and they are:

First: Belief in Allah as a Lord, a Creator, a Provider, and a Disposer of the affairs of this universe. Allah alone deserves to be worshiped and the worship of any deity besides Him is invalid because every other deity is false; therefore, worship is suitable only for Him. This has been detailed earlier in point number (8).

Allah Almighty mentioned those major pillars in various verses in the Noble Qur’an. For example, Allah Almighty says: RThe Messenger believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, as do the believers. All of them believe in Allah, His angels, His Books, and His messengers, [saying], “We make no distinction between any of His messengers.” And they say, “We hear and obey. Grant us Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the [final] destination.”S [Surat al-Baqarah: 285] Allah Almighty also says: RIt is not righteousness to turn your faces towards the east or the west, but righteousness is to believe in Allah, the Last Day, the angels, the Scriptures, and the prophets; and to give charity out of one’s cherished wealth to relatives, orphans, the needy, the wayfarer, beggars, and to free slaves; to establish prayer and give zakah; to fulfill the ratified pledges; to be patient at times of hardship, adversity, and during the battle. Such are the true believers, and such are the righteousS [Surat al-Baqarah: 177] Allah Almighty invited us to believe in those pillars and made it clear that denying them leads one far astray. Allah Almighty says: RO you who believe, believe in Allah, His Messenger, the Book which He has sent down to His Messenger, and the Books which He sent down before. Whoever disbelieves in Allah, His angels, His Books, His messengers, and the Last Day has indeed gone far astray.S [Surat an-Nisā’: 136] ‘Umar ibn al-Khattāb (may Allah be pleased with him) reported: “While we were sitting with the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) one day, a man wearing an extremely white garment and who had extremely black hair, and who did not have any traces of travel, came to us. None of us knew him. He sat with the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) so close that their knees touched. He placed his hands on his thighs and said: ‘O Muhammad, tell me about Islam.’ The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘Islam is to testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establish prayer, give Zakah, fast Ramadān, and perform Hajj if you are able.’ The man said: ‘You have told the truth.’ We wondered at how he asked him and then declared him as having told the truth. Then, he said: ‘Tell me about faith.’ The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘It is to believe in Allah, His angels, Books, messengers, the Last Day, and fate with the good and bad aspects thereof.’ The man said: ‘You have told the truth. Tell me about Ihsān (perfection).’ The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘It is to worship Allah as if you see Him. If you cannot see Him, He surely Sees you.’” [Narrated by Muslim: 8] In this Hadīth, Jibrīl (Gabriel) (peace be upon him) came to Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) and asked him about the levels of religion, namely Islam, faith, and Ihsān. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) answered him and then informed his Companions that Gabriel (peace be upon him) came to teach them their religion. This is simply what Islam is; a divine message sent through Gabriel, conveyed to people by Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him), and preserved by the Companions (may Allah be pleased with them), who conveyed it to people after the death of the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him).

Second: Belief in the angels, who are part of the unseen world and whom Allah created in a specific form. He charged them with great tasks, the greatest of which is delivering the divine messages to the prophets and messengers. The greatest among the angels is Gabriel (peace be upon him). One of the proofs showing how Gabriel delivered the revelation to the messengers (peace be upon them) is the saying of Allah Almighty: RHe sends down the angels with revelation by His command to whom He wills of His slaves, [saying], “Warn that none has the right to be worshiped except Me, so fear Me.”S [Surat an-Nahl: 2] Allah Almighty also says: RAnd indeed, the Qur’an is the revelation of the Lord of the worlds.Brought down by the Trustworthy Spirit [Gabriel]Upon your heart [O Muhammad] – so that you may be of the warners.In a clear Arabic language.And indeed, it is [mentioned] in the scriptures of former peoplesS [Surat ash-Shu‘arā’: 192-196].

Third: Belief in the divine scriptures such as the Torah, the Gospel, the Psalms - before they were distorted - and finally the Qur’an. Allah Almighty says: RO you who believe, believe in Allah, His Messenger, the Book which He has sent down to His Messenger, and the Books which He sent down before. Whoever disbelieves in Allah, His angels, His Books, His messengers, and the Last Day has indeed gone far astrayS [Surat an-Nisā’: 136] Allah Almighty also says: RHe has sent down upon you [O Muhammad], the Book in truth, confirming what came before it. And He revealed the Torah and the Gospelpreviously, as guidance for people, and He sent down the Criterion [between right and wrong]. But those who reject the verses of Allah will suffer a severe punishment, and Allah is All-Mighty, the AvengerS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 3-4] Allah Almighty also says: RThe Messenger believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, as do the believers. All of them believe in Allah, His angels, His Books, and His messengers, [saying], “We make no distinction between any of His messengers.” And they say, “We hear and obey. Grant us Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the [final] destination.”S [Surat al-Baqarah: 285] And Allah Almighty said: RSay, “We believe in Allah and what has been sent down to us and what was sent down to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and his descendants, and what was given to Moses, Jesus, and other prophets from their Lord; we make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we submit.”S [Surat ĀI ‘Imrān: 84].

Fourth: Belief in all the prophets and messengers (peace be upon them). One must believe in all of them and that they were sent by Allah to deliver to their respective nations the messages of Allah, His religion, and laws. Allah Almighty says: RSay [O believers], “We believe in Allah and what has been sent down to us; and what was sent down to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the descendants [of Jacob]; and what was given to Moses and Jesus; and what was given to the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have submitted.”S [Surat al-Baqarah: 136] Allah Almighty also says: RThe Messenger believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, as do the believers. All of them believe in Allah, His angels, His Books, and His messengers, [saying], “We make no distinction between any of His messengers.” And they say, “We hear and obey. Grant us Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the [final] destination.”S [Surat al-Baqarah: 285] Allah Almighty also says: RSay, “We believe in Allah and what has been sent down to us and what was sent down to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and his descendants, and what was given to Moses, Jesus, and other prophets from their Lord; we make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we submit.”S [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 84] One must also believe that Muhammad is the seal of all prophets and messengers (peace be upon them). Allah Almighty says: RAnd [remember] when Allah took the covenant of the prophets, [saying], “After I have given you the Book and wisdom, if there comes to you a messenger confirming what is with you, then you must believe in him and support him.” Allah said, “Do you affirm this covenant and accept this commitment?” They said, “Yes, we do.” He said, “Then bear witness and I am with you among the witnesses.”S [Surat ĀI ‘Imrān: 81] Islam mandates belief in all prophets and messengers in general, including their seal, Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him). Allah Almighty says: RSay, “O People of the Book, you have nothing to stand on unless you observe the Torah and the Gospel and what has been sent down to you from your Lord.”...S [Surat al-Mā’idah: 68] Allah Almighty also says: RSay, “O people of the Book, come to a common term between us and you, that we worship none but Allah and associate no partners with Him, and that we do not take one another as lords besides Allah.” But if they turn away, say, “Bear witness that we are Muslims [submitting to Allah].”S [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 64] Disbelieving in a single prophet entails disbelief in all the prophets and messengers (peace be upon them). Hence, Allah informed us of His judgment on the people of Noah (peace be upon him): RThe people of Noah denied the messengersS [Surat ash-Shu‘arā’: 105] It is well-known that Noah (peace be upon him) had not been preceded by any messenger. However, when his people denied and rejected him, that entailed their denial and rejection of all the [succeeding] prophets and messengers because they share the same call and goal.

Fifth: Belief in the Last Day, namely the Day of Judgment. At the end of this worldly life, Allah will command the angel Isrāfīl (peace be upon him) to blow the trumpet that will put everyone whom Allah wills to death. Allah Almighty says: RThe Trumpet will be blown and all those in the heavens and all those on earth will fall dead, except whom Allah wills. Then it will be blown again, and at once they will be standing, looking onS [Surat az-Zumar: 68] After everything in the heavens and the earth dies except those whom Allah wills, Allah will fold the heavens and the earth as indicated in His saying: ROn the Day when We roll up the heavens like a scroll of records. Just as We originated the first creation, so We will bring it back. That is Our binding promise, which We will surely doS [Surat al-Anbiyā’: 104] Allah Almighty also says: RThey did not revere Allah His true reverence. On the Day of Resurrection, the whole earth will be in His Grip, and the heavens will be rolled up in His Right Hand. Glorified and exalted is He above all what they associate with Him!S [Surat az-Zumar: 67] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Allah Almighty will fold the heavens on the Day of Judgment and then take them in His right hand and say: ‘I am the King. Where are the mighty ones? Where are the arrogant ones?’ Then, He will fold the earth and take it in His left (hand) and say: ‘I am the King. Where are the mighty ones? Where are the arrogant ones?’” [Narrated by Muslim] Allah will then command the angel to blow the trumpet once again, after which everyone will stand and look on. Allah Almighty says: R...Then it will be blown again, and at once they will be standing, looking onS [Surat az-Zumar: 68] After Allah resurrects all creation, He will gather them for reckoning. Allah Almighty says: ROn the Day the earth breaks away from them [and they emerge] rapidly; that gathering is easy for UsS [Surat Qāf: 44] Allah Almighty also says: Rthe Day when they will be brought forth, nothing about them will be hidden from Allah. [He will say], “To whom does the dominion belong this Day? To Allah, the One, the Subjugator!S [Surat Ghāfir: 16] On this Day, Allah will hold all people accountable for their deeds. He will claim the right of the oppressed from their oppressors, and every human being will be recompensed according to his own deeds. Allah Almighty says: RThis Day every soul will be recompensed for what it earned. No injustice today! Indeed, Allah is swift in reckoningS [Surat Ghāfir: 17] Allah Almighty also says: RAllah does not do injustice as much as an atom’s weight. And if it is a good deed, He will multiply it and give from Himself a great rewardS [Surat an-Nisā’: 40] Allah Almighty also says: RSo whoever does an atom’s weight of good will see it,and whoever does an atom’s weight of evil will see itS [Surat az-Zalzalah: 7-8] Allah Almighty also says: RAnd We place the scales of justice for the Day of Judgment, so no soul will be treated unjustly at all. And if there is [even] the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it forth. And sufficient are We as ReckonersS [Surat al-Anbiyā’: 47] After resurrection and reckoning, recompense ensues; good deeds will be rewarded with eternal unceasing bliss, whereas evil deeds and disbelief will lead its doer to punishment. Allah Almighty says: RThe sovereignty on that Day belongs to Allah; He will judge between them, then those who believed and did righteous deeds will be in the Gardens of Bliss.But those who disbelieve and reject Our verses, for them there will be a humiliating punishmentS [Surat al-Hajj: 56-57] It is acknowledged that had this worldly life been the final destination, the whole notion of existence and life itself would have been purely futile. Allah Almighty says: RThen do you think that We created you uselessly and that you would not be returned to Us?S  [Surat al-Mu’minūn: 115].

Sixth: Belief in density and fate. One must believe that Allah knows everything: the past, the present, and the future of this universe. He recorded all of this before the creation of the heavens and the earth. Allah Almighty says: RHe alone has the keys of the unseen; no one knows them except Him. He knows what is in the land and sea. Not a leaf falls without His knowledge, nor a grain in the darkness of the earth, nor anything moist or dry, but is [written] in a Clear RecordS [Surat al-An‘ām: 59] In addition, one must believe that Allah has encompassed all things in knowledge. Allah Almighty says: RAllah is the One who has created seven heavens, and likewise for the earth. The Command descends between them so that you may know that Allah is Most Capable of all things, and that Allah has encompassed everything in knowledgeS [Surat at-Talāq: 12] Nothing happens in this universe without His will, as He created it and facilitated its occurrence. Allah Almighty says: RHe to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and earth, Who has never begotten a son, and has no partner in His dominion. He has created everything and measured it preciselyS [Surat al-Furqān: 2] His actions are infused with utmost wisdom that falls beyond people’s knowledge. Allah Almighty says: RExtensive wisdom - but warning does not avail [them] S [Surat al-Qamr: 5] Allah Almighty also says: RIt is He Who originates the creation then repeats it, which is easier for Him. To Him belong the most sublime attributes in the heavens and earth, and He is the All-Mighty, the All-WiseS [Surat ar-Rūm: 27] Allah Almighty described Himself with wisdom and named Himself the All-Wise. Allah Almighty says: RAllah testifies that none has the right to be worshiped except Him, as do the angels and people of knowledge; He is the Upholder of justice. None has the right to be worshiped except Him, the All-Mighty, the All-WiseS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 18] Allah Almighty reported that Jesus (peace be upon him) will implore Him on the Day of Judgment saying: RIf You punish them, they are Your slaves; if You forgive them, You are indeed the All-Mighty, All-Wise.”S [Surat al-Mā’idah: 118] Allah said to Moses (peace be upon him) when He called upon him at the Mount Tūr: RO Moses, indeed it is I - Allah, the All-Mighty, the All-WiseS [Surat an-Naml: 9] Allah Almighty described the glorious Qur’an with wisdom: RAlif Lām Ra. This is a Book whose verses are perfected, then fully explained, from One Who is All-Wise, All-AwareS [Surat Hūd: 1] Allah Almighty also says: RThis is part of the wisdom that your Lord has revealed to you [O Prophet]. Do not set up any other god with Allah, or you will be thrown into Hell, blameworthy and rejectedS  [Surat al-Isrā’: 39].

 22. All the prophets (peace be upon them) are infallible in what they convey from Allah and they are protected against committing anything that may contradict reason or violate upright morals. The prophets are tasked with conveying the commands of Allah to His servants. They possess nothing of the qualities of Lordship or deity. Instead, they are merely humans to whom Allah Almighty sent His revelation.

All the prophets (peace be upon them) are infallible in what they convey from Allah because He chooses the best of His creation to convey His messages. Allah Almighty says: RAllah chooses from the angels messengers and from the people. Indeed, Allah is All-Hearing, All-SeeingS [Surat al-Hajj: 75] And Allah Almighty said: RIndeed, Allah chose Adam and Noah and the family of Abraham and the family of ‘Imrān over the worldsS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 33] And Allah Almighty said: R[Allah] said: “O Moses, I have chosen you over the people with My messages and My words [to you]. So take what I have given you and be among the grateful.”S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 144] The Messengers (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon them) knew that the inspiration they received was the divine revelation. They watched the angels delivering the revelation. Allah Almighty says: R[He is] Knower of the unseen, He does not reveal His unseen to anyone,except the messenger whom He chooses, then He appoints angel-guards before him and behind himto ensure that the messengers fully conveyed the messages of their Lord. He encompasses in His knowledge all about them, and keeps count of all things.”S [Surat al-Jinn: 26-28] Allah commanded them to convey His messages as He says: RO Messenger, convey what has been sent down to you from your Lord. If you do not do that, then you have not conveyed His message. Allah will protect you from the people. Allah does not guide the disbelieving peopleS [Surat al-Mā’idah: 67] And Allah Almighty said: RThese messengers were sent as bearers of glad tidings and as warners, so that the people may have no excuse before Allah after [the coming of] the messengers. For Allah is All-Mighty, All-WiseS [Surat an-Nisā’: 165] The messengers (peace be upon them) fear Allah the most so they neither add nor remove anything from His messages. Allah Almighty says: RIf he had falsely attributed something to Us,We would have surely seized him by the right hand,then severed his aorta,and none of you could have rescued himS [Surat al-Hāqqah: 44-47] Ibn Kathīr (may Allah have mercy upon him) commented: “Allah says: RIf he had falsely attributed something to UsS; i.e, Had Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) been as they claim: an impostor who would add or remove anything from the message or forge anything and attribute it to Allah - which he had not been - We [i.e. Allah] would have hastened his punishment. Thus, Allah says: RWe would have surely seized him by the right handS. It was said that it means We would take retribution from him by the right hand because it has a relatively more power. It was also said that it means we would seize him by his right hand. ”And Allah Almighty said: RWhen Allah will say, “O Jesus, son of Mary, did you tell people, “Take me and my mother as gods besides Allah?” He wills say, “Glory be to You! It is not for me to say what I have no right. Had I said so, You would have surely known it. You know what is within myself, whereas I do not know what is within Yourself. Indeed, You are the All-Knower of all unseen. I did not tell them except what You ordered me – ‘Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord.’ I was witness over them as long as I was among them. But when You took me up, You Yourself were Watcher over them, and You are a Witness over all thingsS  [Surat al-Mā’idah: 116-117] Out of Allah’s favor upon His prophets and messengers (peace be upon them), He grants them steadfastness during their mission. Allah Almighty says: R...He said, “I take Allah as witness, and you too be witnesses, that I disown whatever you associate. with Him. So plot against me all together, then give me no respite.I put my trust in Allah, my Lord and your Lord. There is no moving creature but He holds it by its forelock. My Lord is on a straight pathS [Surat Hūd: 54-56] Allah Almighty also says: RThey were about to tempt you away from what We have revealed to you [O Prophet], so that you would fabricate something else and attribute it to Us; then they would have surely taken you as a close friendHad We not made you stand firm, you would nearly have inclined to them a little.In that case, We would have made you taste double punishment, both in this life and after death. Thereupon you would have found no helper against UsS [Surat al-Isrā’: 73-75] The above verses prove that the Qur’an is a revelation from the Lord of the worlds because had it been produced by Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him), he would not have inserted such an address to himself.Allah Almighty protects His messengers from people as He says: RO Messenger, convey what has been sent down to you from your Lord. If you do not do that, then you have not conveyed His message. Allah will protect you from the people. Allah does not guide the disbelieving peopleS [Surat al-Mā’idah: 67] Allah Almighty also says: RRelate to them the story of Noah when he said to his people, “O my People, if my presence among you and my reminding you of Allah’s signs have become unbearable to you, then in Allah I have put my trust. So gather all your schemes, you and your [so-called] partners, leaving no room for uncertainty, then carry it out against me, and give me no respiteS [Surat Yūnus: 71] Allah Almighty reported the statement of Moses (peace be upon him): RThey said, “Our Lord, we fear that he may hasten to punish us or transgress all bounds.” He said, “Do not be afraid; I am with you both, hearing and seeingS [Surat Taha: 45-46] Allah Almighty made it clear that He protects His prophets (peace be upon them) against their enemies who cannot harm them in the least. Allah Almighty informed that He preserves His revelation against addition and omission. Allah Almighty says: RIt is We Who have sent down the Reminder, and it is We Who will preserve itS [Surat al-Hijr: 9] The prophets (peace be upon them) are free from doing things which are in conflict with reason or morals. Allah Almighty expresses His praise of Prophet Muhammad’s morals saying: RAnd indeed, you are of a great moral characterS [Surat al-Qalam: 4] Allah Almighty says about him: RAnd your companion is not madS [Surat at-Takwīr: 22] The purpose of this protection is to enable the prophets to deliver the message in the best manner possible. They are tasked with conveying the commands of Allah to His servants. They possess no attribute of Lordship or deity, rather, they are like any other human except that they receive the revelation of Allah. Allah Almighty says: RTheir messengers said to them, “We are no more than human beings like you, but it is Allah Who bestows His favor upon whom He wills of His slaves. It is not for us to bring you a proof except with Allah’s permission, and in Allah let the believers put their trust.”S [Surat Ibrāhim: 11] Allah commanded His Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) to say to his people: RSay, “I am only a man like you; it has been revealed to me that your God is One God. So whoever hopes for the meeting with his Lord, let him do righteous deeds and associate none in the worship of his Lord.”S [Surat al-Kahf: 110].

 23. Islam calls to dedicating the main pillars of worship to Allah alone such as the prayer that involves standing, bowing, prostrating, remembering and praising Allah, and supplicating Him. The prayer is observed five times a day and it erases all differences between the rich and the poor, the boss and the employee; as they all stand in one row in prayer. Another main act of worship is Zakah that involves paying a small portion of money in accordance with the conditions and the standard measures designated by Allah. The rich are obligated to pay it to the poor among others and it is payable once a year. The third pillar is fasting that involves refraining from all acts that invalidate it throughout the day in Ramadān. It fosters determination and patience in the soul. Lastly, observing Hajj by heading towards the House of Allah in Makkah once in a lifetime for whoever is capable. In Hajj, everyone is equal in standing before Allah Almighty as it erases all differences and affiliations.

Islam calls to worshiping Allah via the major acts of worship as well as other worships. Allah mandated these major acts of worship on all prophets and messengers (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon them). They are as follows:

First: Prayer: Allah ordained prayer on all Muslims as well as on all prophets and messengers (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon them). He commanded His Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) to purify His House for those who perform Tawāf (circumambulation of the Ka‘bah) and those who are praying, bowing, and prostrating. Allah Almighty says: RAnd [remember] when We made the House [Ka‘ba] a focal point and a sanctuary for the people. [O believers], take the Station of Abraham as a place for prayer.” We charged Abraham and Ishmael to purify My House for those who perform circumambulation or stay for worship, or those who bow down and prostrateS  [Surat al-Baqarah: 125] Allah enjoined it upon Moses the first time He called upon him. Allah Almighty says: RIndeed, I am your Lord, so take off your shoes; you are in the sacred valley of Tuwā.I have chosen you, so listen to what is being revealed:‘Indeed, I am Allah; none has the right to be worshiped except Me, so worship Me and establish prayer to remember meS [Surat Taha: 12-14] The Messiah, Jesus (peace be upon him), informed that Allah commanded him to pray and give Zakah as Allah Almighty says: RAnd He has made me blessed wherever I am and has enjoined upon me prayer and Zakah as long as I remain aliveS [Surat Maryam: 31] In Islam, prayer consists of standing, bowing, prostrating, remembering Allah, and praising Him. It is observed five times a day. Allah Almighty says: RBe mindful of the prayers, especially the middle prayer; and stand before Allah in complete devotionS [Surat al-Baqarah: 238] Allah Almighty also says: REstablish prayer at the decline of the sun until the darkness of the night, and the recitation of dawn [prayer], for the recitation of dawn is ever witnessed [by the angles] S [Surat al-Isrā’: 78] The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) also said: “As for bowing, glorify the Lord therein, and as for prostration, strive hard in supplication for it is more likely that you will receive an answer.” [Narrated by Muslim].

Second: Zakah: Allah obligated the payment of Zakah on Muslims as well as on all the previous prophets and messengers (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon them). It is a small amount of money to be given out in accordance with designated measures and conditions set by Allah. It is obligatory to be paid by the rich to the poor and other categories and it is paid once a year. Allah Almighty says: RTake charity from their wealth [O Prophet] to cleanse and purify them, and pray for them. Your prayer is a source of comfort for them. And Allah is All-Hearing, All-KnowingS [Surat at-Tawbah: 103] When the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) dispatched Mu‘ādh (may Allah be pleased with him) to Yemen, he instructed him saying :“You will come to a people from the People of the Book. Invite them to the testimony that there is no god worthy of worship but Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah. If they obey you in that, tell them that Allah Almighty made obligatory on them five prayers every day and night. If they obey you in that, tell them that Allah made obligatory on them Zakah to be taken from the rich and given back to the poor among them. If they obey you in that, do not ever approach their precious properties, and beware of the supplication of an oppressed person, for there is no barrier between it and Allah Almighty.” [Narrated by Al-Tirmidhi: 625].

Third: Fasting: Allah ordained fasting on Muslims as well as on all the previous prophets and messengers (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon them). Allah Almighty says: RO you who believe, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you so that you may become righteousS [Surat al-Baqarah: 183] Fasting is to abstain from what would break one’s fast during the day throughout the month of Ramadān. Fasting fosters determination and patience in one’s soul.The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Allah Almighty says: ‘It is Me Who shall give reward for fasting as it is done for My sake alone, for one abandons his lust and food and drink for My sake. Fasting is, indeed, a shield. There are two moments of joy for the fasting person: when he breaks his fast and when he meets his Lord.’” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 7492].

Fourth: Hajj: Allah ordained Hajj on Muslims as well as on all the previous prophets and messengers (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon them). He commanded His Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) to call out for Hajj. Allah Almighty says: RAnd proclaim the pilgrimage to all people; they will come to you on foot and on every lean camel from every distant pathwayS [Surat al-Hajj: 27] Allah commanded him to purify His Ancient House for the pilgrims, as Allah Almighty says: RAnd [remember] when We showed to Abraham the site of the House [Ka’ba], “Do not associate anything with Me, and purify My House for those who circumambulate it, and those who stand up in prayer, and those who bow and prostrateS [Surat al-Hajj: 26] Hajj is to head towards the House of Allah located in Makkah to perform certain rituals once in a lifetime. It is to be performed by those capable physically and financially. Allah Almighty says: R...Pilgrimage to the House is a duty owed to Allah upon all people who are able to make their way to it; whoever disbelieves, then Allah is in no need for the worldsS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 97] In Hajj, the Muslim pilgrims gather in a single location and sincerely worship the Creator, Glorified is He. All pilgrims perform the rites of Hajj in a similar manner, thus removing all the differences related to the environment, culture, and living standard.

 24. One of the most unique features of the acts of worship in Islam is that Allah Almighty legislated their manner of performance, times, and conditions and His Messenger (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) conveyed them, thus leaving no room for any human interference in the process, neither by increase nor decrease. All prophets (peace be upon them) called to those major acts of worship.

One of the most unique features of the acts of worship in Islam is that Allah Almighty legislated their manner of performance, times, and conditions and His Messenger (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) conveyed them, thus leaving no room for any human interference in the process, neither by increase nor decrease. Allah Almighty says: R...This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as a religion...S [Surat al-Mā’idah: 3] Allah Almighty also says: RSo adhere to that which is revealed to you. Indeed, you are on a straight pathS [Surat az-Zukhruf: 43] Allah Almighty says about prayer: RWhen you have finished the prayer, remember Allah, standing, sitting, or lying down. But when you are safe again, establish regular prayer. Indeed, prayer is prescribed for the believers at specific timesS [Surat an-Nisā’: 103] Allah Almighty says about the categories of people deserving Zakah: RAlms [zakah] is only for the poor and the needy; those in charge of it; those whose hearts may be attracted [to Islam]; for freeing those in bondage; for those in debt; for the cause of Allah; and for [the stranded] traveler – as ordained by Allah, for Allah is All-Knowing, All-WiseS [Surat at-Tawbah: 60] Allah Almighty says about fasting: RRamadān is a month in which the Qur’an was sent down as a guidance for mankind and as clear signs that show the right way and distinguish between right and wrong. So whoever of you witnesses this month, should fast. But if anyone is ill or on a journey, he should make up for those days. Allah wants ease for you and does not want hardship for you, so that you may complete the prescribed number of days, and proclaim the greatness of Allah for having guided you, and so that you may be gratefulS [Surat al-Baqarah: 185] Allah Almighty says about Hajj: RThe pilgrimage is in known months. Whoever commits himself to perform the pilgrimage, there should be no intimacy, foul language, and arguments during pilgrimage. Whatever good you do, Allah is aware of it. And take provisions for the journey, but the best provision is righteousness. So fear Me, O people of understandingS [Surat al-Baqarah: 197] All of those great acts of worship were advocated and preached by all prophets (peace be upon them).

 25. The Messenger of Islam is Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah, a descendant of Ismā‘il (Ishmael), son of Abraham (peace be upon them). He was born in 571 AD in Makkah where his mission as a prophet began. He migrated to Madinah and he had never participated in any polytheistic act with his people although he only joined them in some honorable acts. He enjoyed an upright moral character before he was tasked with the mission, which earned him the title of the Trustworthy. Allah tasked him with the mission at the age of forty and supported him with great miracles, the greatest of which is the Noble Qur’an which is considered the most sublime sign of the prophets and the only remaining sign until today. After Allah completed the religion and the Messenger (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) conveyed it fully, he died at the age of sixty-three and was buried in Madinah. He (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) is the seal of the prophets and messengers. Allah sent him with guidance and the religion of truth to bring people out of the darkness of paganism, disbelief, and ignorance to the light of Tawhīd (monotheism) and faith. Allah bears witness that He sent him to call people to Allah by His permission.

The Messenger of Islam is Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah, a descendant of Ishmael, son of Abraham (peace be upon them). He was born in 571 AD in Makkah where his mission as a prophet began. He migrated to Madinah and his people used to call him “the trustworthy”. He had never participated in any polytheistic act with his people although he only joined them in some honorable acts. He enjoyed an upright moral character before he was tasked with the mission. Allah Almighty described him saying: RAnd indeed you are of a great moral characterS [Surat al-Qalam: 4] Allah tasked him with the mission at the age of forty and supported him with great miracles, the greatest of which is the Noble Qur’an.The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Every prophet was given miracles for people to believe him, but what I have been given is divine revelation which Allah has revealed to me. So, I hope that my followers will outnumber the followers of the other prophets on the Day of Judgment.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri] The glorious Qur’an is the revelation of Allah to His Messenger (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him). Allah described it saying: RThis is the Book about which there is no doubt, a guidance for the righteousS [Surat al-Baqarah: 2] Allah Almighty also says about it: RThen do they not reflect upon the Qur’an? If it had been from anyone other than Allah, they would have found in it much contradictionS  [Surat an-Nisā’: 82] Allah challenged both the humans and jinn to produce a similar version of the Qur’an as indicated in Allah’s saying: RSay, “If all humans and jinn were to come together to produce something similar to this Qur’an, they would not be able to produce the like of it, even if they collaborated with one another.”S [Surat al-Isrā’: 88] He even reduced the challenge to only ten chapters, saying: ROr do they say, “He has fabricated it”? Say, “Then produce ten fabricated Chapters like it and seek help from whoever you can besides Allah, if you are truthful!”S [Surat Hūd: 13] The challenge was reduced yet once again to just a single chapter, as Allah Almighty said: RIf you are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down upon Our slave, then produce a chapter like it and call upon your helpers other than Allah, if you are truthfulS [Surat al-Baqarah: 23].

He even reduced the challenge to only ten chapters, saying: ROr do they say, “He has fabricated it”? Say, “Then produce ten fabricated Chapters like it and seek help from whoever you can besides Allah, if you are truthful!”S  [Surat Hūd: 13].

The challenge was reduced yet once again to just a single chapter, as Allah Almighty said: RIf you are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down upon Our slave, then produce a chapter like it and call upon your helpers other than Allah, if you are truthfulS  [Surat al-Baqarah: 23].

The glorious Qur’an is the only remaining sign of the prophets’ signs until today. After Allah completed the religion and the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) conveyed it fully, he died at the age of sixty-three and was buried in Madinah.

Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) is the seal of the prophets and messengers. Allah Almighty says: RMuhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the seal of the prophets. And Allah is All-Knowing of everythingS [Surat al-Ahzāb: 40] Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “My similitude in comparison with the other prophets who came before me is that of a man who has built a house nicely and beautifully, except for the place of one brick in a corner. The people go about it and wonder at its beauty, but say: ‘If only this brick was put in its place!’ So I am that brick, and I am the last of the prophets.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri] In the Gospel, the Messiah (peace be upon him) foretold the good news of the emergence of Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him): “Have you never read in the Scriptures: ‘The stone which the builders rejected Has become the chief cornerstone. This was the Lord’s doing, And it is marvelous in our eyes’?” In today’s Torah, there is a statement made by Allah to Moses (peace be upon him) saying: “I will raise up for them a Prophet like you from their midst, from their brethren. I will put my words in his mouth and he will convey everything I instruct him.” Allah sent Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) with guidance and the religion of the truth. He attested to him that he is committed to the truth and that He sent Him as a caller to Him by His permission. Allah Almighty says: RBut Allah bears witness to what He has sent down to you, as He has sent it down with His knowledge, and the angels bear witness; but sufficient is Allah as a WitnessS [Surat an-Nisā’: 166]Allah Almighty also says: RHe is the One Who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth, to make it prevail over all religions, and sufficient is Allah as a WitnessS [Surat al-Fat-h: 28] Allah has sent him with guidance to bring people out of the darkness of paganism, disbelief, and ignorance to the light of Tawhīd (monotheism) and faith. Allah Almighty says: Rthrough which Allah guides those who seek His pleasure to the ways of peace, and brings them out of the depths of darkness to the light by His Will, and guides them to a straight pathS [Surat al-Mā’idah: 16] Allah Almighty also says: RAlif Lām Ra. This is a book that We have sent down to you, so that you may bring people out of the depths of darkness into the light, by their Lord’s permission, to the path of the All-Mighty, the PraiseworthyS  [Surat Ibrāhim: 1]. RMuhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the seal of the prophets. And Allah is All-Knowing of everythingS [Surat al-Ahzāb: 40].

Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “My similitude in comparison with the other prophets who came before me is that of a man who has built a house nicely and beautifully, except for the place of one brick in a corner. The people go about it and wonder at its beauty, but say: ‘If only this brick was put in its place!’ So I am that brick, and I am the last of the prophets.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri].

In the Gospel, the Messiah (peace be upon him) foretold the good news of the emergence of Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him): “Have you never read in the Scriptures: ‘The stone which the builders rejected Has become the chief cornerstone. This was the Lord’s doing, And it is marvelous in our eyes’?” In today’s Torah, there is a statement made by Allah to Moses (peace be upon him) saying: “I will raise up for them a Prophet like you from their midst, from their brethren. I will put my words in his mouth and he will convey everything I instruct him.”

Allah sent Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) with guidance and the religion of the truth. He attested to him that he is committed to the truth and that He sent Him as a caller to Him by His permission. Allah Almighty says: RBut Allah bears witness to what He has sent down to you, as He has sent it down with His knowledge, and the angels bear witness; but sufficient is Allah as a WitnessS  [Surat an-Nisā’: 166]. Allah Almighty also says: RHe is the One Who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth, to make it prevail over all religions, and sufficient is Allah as a WitnessS  [Surat al-Fat-h: 28]. Allah has sent him with guidance to bring people out of the darkness of paganism, disbelief, and ignorance to the light of Tawhīd (monotheism) and faith. Allah Almighty says: Rthrough which Allah guides those who seek His pleasure to the ways of peace, and brings them out of the depths of darkness to the light by His Will, and guides them to a straight pathS  [Surat al-Mā’idah: 16]. Allah Almighty also says: RAlif Lām Ra. This is a book that We have sent down to you, so that you may bring people out of the depths of darkness into the light, by their Lord’s permission, to the path of the All-Mighty, the PraiseworthyS  [Surat Ibrāhim: 1].

 26. The Shariah of Islam brought by the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) is the seal of the divine messages and laws. It is the Shariah of perfection and reforming people’s religion and worldly affairs. Its priority is protecting people’s religions, lives, properties, minds, and offspring. It abrogates all the previous laws just as all the messages beforehand abrogated one another.

The Shariah of Islam brought by the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) is the seal of the divine messages and laws. Allah perfected the religion by this message and completed the favor on people by the mission of Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him). Allah Almighty says: R...This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion...S [Surat al-Mā’idah: 3] The Shariah of Islam is the epitome of perfection and it entails reforming people’s lives and religion because it encompasses all the good in the previous divine messages but outclasses them in perfection and completion. Allah Almighty says: RIndeed, this Qur’an guides to what is most upright, and gives glad tidings to the believers who do righteous deeds that they will have a great reward.S [Surat al-Isrā’: 9] The Shariah of Islam removes the shackles that were imposed on the previous nations. Allah Almighty says: Rthose who follow the Messenger – the unlettered Prophet – whose description they find in their Torah and the Gospel. He enjoins them to do what is good and forbids them from what is evil; he makes lawful for them what is pure and makes unlawful for them from what is impure; he relieves them of their burden and the shackles that were on them. So those who believe in him, they honor and support him, and follow the light which is sent down with him – it is they who will be successful.”S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 157] The Shariah of Islam abrogates all the previous scriptural laws, as Allah Almighty said: RWe have revealed to you [O Prophet] the Book in truth, confirming the scriptures that came before it and as a criterion over them. So judge between them according to what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their desires in disregard of the truth that has come to you. To each of you We have ordained a law and a way of life. If Allah had willed, He would have made you a single community, but He tests you in what He has given you. So compete with one another in doing good deeds. To Allah you will all return, then He will inform you concerning things over which you used to differS [Surat al-Mā’idah: 48] The Noble Qur’an, inclusive of Shariah, confirms, judges, and abrogates all the previous scriptures.

R...This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion...S [Surat al-Mā’idah: 3].

The Shariah of Islam is the epitome of perfection and it entails reforming people’s lives and religion because it encompasses all the good in the previous divine messages but outclasses them in perfection and completion. Allah Almighty says: RIndeed, this Qur’an guides to what is most upright, and gives glad tidings to the believers who do righteous deeds that they will have a great rewardS  [Surat al-Isrā’: 9].

The Shariah of Islam removes the shackles that were imposed on the previous nations. Allah Almighty says: Rthose who follow the Messenger – the unlettered Prophet – whose description they find in their Torah and the Gospel. He enjoins them to do what is good and forbids them from what is evil; he makes lawful for them what is pure and makes unlawful for them from what is impure; he relieves them of their burden and the shackles that were on them. So those who believe in him, they honor and support him, and follow the light which is sent down with him – it is they who will be successful.”S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 157].

The Shariah of Islam abrogates all the previous scriptural laws, as Allah Almighty said: RWe have revealed to you [O Prophet] the Book in truth, confirming the scriptures that came before it and as a criterion over them. So judge between them according to what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their desires in disregard of the truth that has come to you. To each of you We have ordained a law and a way of life. If Allah had willed, He would have made you a single community, but He tests you in what He has given you. So compete with one another in doing good deeds. To Allah you will all return, then He will inform you concerning things over which you used to differS  [Surat al-Mā’idah: 48].

The Noble Qur’an, inclusive of Shariah, confirms, judges, and abrogates all the previous scriptures.

 27. Allah Almighty accepts no other religion but Islam that was brought by Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) and whoever embraces a different religion, it will not be accepted from him.

After the mission of the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him), Allah Almighty accepts no other religion but Islam, and anyone who embraces a different religion, it will not be accepted from him.Allah Almighty says: RAnyone who seeks a religion other than Islam, never will it be accepted from him; and in the Hereafter he will be among the losersS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 85] Allah Almighty also says: RThe true religion with Allah is Islam. Those who were given the Scripture did not dispute except after the knowledge had come to them, out of mutual envy and rivalry. But whoever rejects the verses of Allah, then Allah is swift in reckoningS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 19] Islam is the religion of Abraham (peace be upon him). Allah Almighty says: RWho would forsake the religion of Abraham except a fool! We have chosen him in this world, and in the Hereafter he will be among the righteousS [Surat al-Baqarah: 130] Allah Almighty also says: RWho is better in religion than one who submits himself entirely to Allah, does good, and follows the religion of Abraham, exclusively devoted to Allah? For Allah did take Abraham as a close friendS [Surat an-Nisā’: 125] Allah commanded His Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) to say: RSay [O Prophet], “Indeed, my Lord has guided me to a straight path, an upright religion, the faith of Abraham, inclining to true faith, and he was not one of those who associate partners with Allah.”S [Surat al-An‘ām: 161]. Allah Almighty says: RAnyone who seeks a religion other than Islam, never will it be accepted from him; and in the Hereafter he will be among the losersS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 85]. Allah Almighty also says: RThe true religion with Allah is Islam. Those who were given the Scripture did not dispute except after the knowledge had come to them, out of mutual envy and rivalry. But whoever rejects the verses of Allah, then Allah is swift in reckoningS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 19].

Islam is the religion of Abraham (peace be upon him). Allah Almighty says: RWho would forsake the religion of Abraham except a fool! We have chosen him in this world, and in the Hereafter he will be among the righteousS  [Surat al-Baqarah: 130]. Allah Almighty also says: RWho is better in religion than one who submits himself entirely to Allah, does good, and follows the religion of Abraham, exclusively devoted to Allah? For Allah did take Abraham as a close friend S [Surat an-Nisā’: 125].

Allah commanded His Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) to say: RSay [O Prophet], “Indeed, my Lord has guided me to a straight path, an upright religion, the faith of Abraham, inclining to true faith, and he was not one of those who associate partners with Allah.”S [Surat al-An‘ām: 161].

 28. The Noble Qur’an is the Book that Allah revealed to His Messenger Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him). It is the speech of Allah, Lord of the worlds. He challenged with it both the humans and jinn to produce something similar or even a chapter thereof, which is a persisting challenge until today. The Noble Qur’an answers important questions puzzling millions of people. The Noble Qur’an is preserved in the Arabic language in the same format it was first revealed; no letter is omitted from it and it is printed and circulated. It is a great and miraculous Book worthy of reading or reading the translation of its meanings. Likewise, the Sunnah of the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) and his teachings and biography are also preserved and reported through a chain of reliable narrators. It is also printed in the Arabic language spoken by the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) and translated to many other languages. Both the Noble Qur’an and Sunnah of the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) constitute together the sole source of the rulings and legislations of Islam. Islam cannot be taken from the conduct of its followers, rather it should be taken from the divine revelation; namely the Great Qur’an and the Prophetic Sunnah.

The Noble Qur’an is the Book that Allah revealed to the Arab Messenger Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him). It is the word of Allah, Lord of the worlds. Allah Almighty says: RAnd indeed, the Qur’an is the revelation of the Lord of the worlds.Brought down by the Trustworthy Spirit [Gabriel]Upon your heart [O Muhammad], so that you may be of the warners.In a clear Arabic languageS [Surat ash-Shu‘arā’: 192-195] Allah Almighty also says: RAnd indeed, [O Muhammad], you receive the Qur’an from the All-Wise, All-KnowingS [Surat an-Naml: 6] This Noble Qur’an is a revelation from Allah. It confirms the previous divine scriptures. Allah Almighty says: RThis Qur’an could not possibly have been produced by anyone other than Allah. It is a confirmation of what came before it and an explanation of the Scripture, and is undoubtedly from the Lord of the worldsS [Surat Yūnus: 37] The glorious Qur’an elucidates most of the religious issues upon which the Jews and Christians disagreed. Allah Almighty says: RIndeed, this Qur’an relates to the Children of Israel most of that over which they differS [Surat an-Naml: 76] The glorious Qur’an contains substantial proofs offering an irrefutable argument against all people as far as learning about the facts related to Allah Almighty, His religion, and recompense are concerned. Allah Almighty says: RAnd We have certainly presented for the people in this Qur’an from every [kind of] example, so that they may take heedS [Surat az-Zumar: 27] And Allah Almighty said: R...And We have sent down to you the Book as clarification of all things and as guidance and mercy and glad tidings for the MuslimsS [Surat an-Nahl: 89] The Noble Qur’an answers many critical questions that puzzle millions of people. The Noble Qur’an clarifies, for instance, how Allah created the heavens and the earth. Allah Almighty says: RAre the disbelievers not aware that the heavens and earth were joined together and then We split them apart? We created from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?S [Surat al-Anbiyā’: 30] It also clarifies how Allah created the human being. Allah Almighty says: RO mankind, if you are in doubt concerning the Resurrection, then We surely created you from dust, then from a drop of sperm, then from a clot, then from a lump of flesh – formed or unformed – so that We may make it clear to you [Our power]. We settle in the wombs whatever We will for an appointed term. Then We bring you out as infants, then [We nurture you] so that you may reach your maturity. Then some of you die, while others are left to reach the decrepit old age so that they may know nothing after having knowledge. You see the land lifeless, then as soon as We send down rain on it, it stirs and swells to life and brings forth every type of pleasant plantS [Surat al-Hajj: 5] It also explains man’s destiny and the reward of the doer of good and the doer of evil in the Hereafter. I have provided the relevant proofs on this issue in point number (20). Moreover, it explains how this existence has been produced, and whether that was done by mere chance or for a noble purpose.Allah Almighty says: RHave they not observed the dominions of the heavens and earth and all that Allah has created, and that the end of their term might be near? In what message after this [Qur’an] will they then believe?S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 185] And Allah Almighty said: RDid you think that We created you with no purpose, and that you would not be brought back to Us?”S [Surat al-Mu’minūn: 115] The glorious Qur’an is still preserved in the language it was first revealed in. Allah Almighty says: RIt is We Who have sent down the Reminder, and it is We Who will preserve itS [Surat al-Hijr: 9] There has not been any omission of even a single letter. It is impossible to find any contradiction, deficiency, or change in the Qur’an. Allah Almighty says: RDo they not then ponder on the Qur’an? If it had been from anyone other than Allah, they would have surely found in it many discrepanciesS [Surat an-Nisā’: 82] It is printed and circulated. It is a great and miraculous Book worthy of reading, listening to, or reading the translation of its meanings. Likewise, the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) and his teachings and biography are also preserved and reported through a chain of reliable narrators. It is also printed in the Arabic language and spoken by the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) and translated to many other languages. Both the Noble Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) constitute together the sole source of the rulings and legislations of Islam. Islam cannot be taken from the conduct of its followers, rather it should be taken from the divine revelation; namely the Great Qur’an and the Prophetic Sunnah. Allah Almighty says about the Qur’an: RThose who disbelieve in the Reminder when it comes to them [will be punished], for it is truly a mighty Book. No falsehood can approach it from the front or from behind; a revelation from the One Who is All-Wise, PraiseworthS [Surat Fussilat: 41-42] Allah Almighty says about the Prophetic Sunnah, which is also a revelation from Him: R...Whatever the Messenger gives you, accept it, and whatever he forbids you, refrain from it. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is severe in punishmentS [Surat al-Hashr: 7].

RAnd indeed, the Qur’an is the revelation of the Lord of the worlds. Brought down by the Trustworthy Spirit [Gabriel] Upon your heart [O Muhammad], so that you may be of the warners. In a clear Arabic languageS [Surat ash-Shu‘arā’: 192-195]. Allah Almighty also says: RAnd indeed, [O Muhammad], you receive the Qur’an from the All-Wise, All-KnowingS [Surat an-Naml: 6].

This Noble Qur’an is a revelation from Allah. It confirms the previous divine scriptures. Allah Almighty says: RThis Qur’an could not possibly have been produced by anyone other than Allah. It is a confirmation of what came before it and an explanation of the Scripture, and is undoubtedly from the Lord of the worldsS  [Surat Yūnus: 37].

The glorious Qur’an elucidates most of the religious issues upon which the Jews and Christians disagreed. Allah Almighty says: RIndeed, this Qur’an relates to the Children of Israel most of that over which they differS [Surat an-Naml: 76].

The glorious Qur’an contains substantial proofs offering an irrefutable argument against all people as far as learning about the facts related to Allah Almighty, His religion, and recompense are concerned. Allah Almighty says: RAnd We have certainly presented for the people in this Qur’an from every [kind of] example, so that they may take heedS [Surat az-Zumar: 27]. And Allah Almighty said: R...And We have sent down to you the Book as clarification of all things and as guidance and mercy and glad tidings for the MuslimsS [Surat an-Nahl: 89].

The Noble Qur’an answers many critical questions that puzzle millions of people. The Noble Qur’an clarifies, for instance, how Allah created the heavens and the earth. Allah Almighty says: RAre the disbelievers not aware that the heavens and earth were joined together and then We split them apart? We created from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?S [Surat al-Anbiyā’: 30].

 It also clarifies how Allah created the human being. Allah Almighty says: RO mankind, if you are in doubt concerning the Resurrection, then We surely created you from dust, then from a drop of sperm, then from a clot, then from a lump of flesh – formed or unformed – so that We may make it clear to you [Our power]. We settle in the wombs whatever We will for an appointed term. Then We bring you out as infants, then [We nurture you] so that you may reach your maturity. Then some of you die, while others are left to reach the decrepit old age so that they may know nothing after having knowledge. You see the land lifeless, then as soon as We send down rain on it, it stirs and swells to life and brings forth every type of pleasant plantS [Surat al-Hajj: 5] It also explains man’s destiny and the reward of the doer of good and the doer of evil in the Hereafter. I have provided the relevant proofs on this issue in point number (20). Moreover, it explains how this existence has been produced, and whether that was done by mere chance or for a noble purpose.

Allah Almighty says: RHave they not observed the dominions of the heavens and earth and all that Allah has created, and that the end of their term might be near? In what message after this [Qur’an] will they then believe?S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 185]. And Allah Almighty said: RDid you think that We created you with no purpose, and that you would not be brought back to Us?”S [Surat al-Mu’minūn: 115].

The glorious Qur’an is still preserved in the language it was first revealed in. Allah Almighty says: RIt is We Who have sent down the Reminder, and it is We Who will preserve itS [Surat al-Hijr: 9].

There has not been any omission of even a single letter. It is impossible to find any contradiction, deficiency, or change in the Qur’an. Allah Almighty says: RDo they not then ponder on the Qur’an? If it had been from anyone other than Allah, they would have surely found in it many discrepanciesS [Surat an-Nisā’: 82].

It is printed and circulated. It is a great and miraculous Book worthy of reading, listening to, or reading the translation of its meanings. Likewise, the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) and his teachings and biography are also preserved and reported through a chain of reliable narrators. It is also printed in the Arabic language and spoken by the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) and translated to many other languages. Both the Noble Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) constitute together the sole source of the rulings and legislations of Islam. Islam cannot be taken from the conduct of its followers, rather it should be taken from the divine revelation; namely the Great Qur’an and the Prophetic Sunnah. Allah Almighty says about the Qur’an: RThose who disbelieve in the Reminder when it comes to them [will be punished], for it is truly a mighty Book. No falsehood can approach it from the front or from behind; a revelation from the One Who is All-Wise, PraiseworthS [Surat Fussilat: 41-42]. Allah Almighty says about the Prophetic Sunnah, which is also a revelation from Him: R...Whatever the Messenger gives you, accept it, and whatever he forbids you, refrain from it. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is severe in punishmentS [Surat al-Hashr: 7].

 29. Islam instructs kindness to parents even if they are non-Muslims and it also instructs good treatment of children.

Islam instructs kindness to parents as Allah Almighty says: RYour Lord has ordained that you worship none but Him, and show kindness to parents. If one or both of them reach old age in your care, do not say to them a word of annoyance nor scold them, rather speak to them noble words,S [Surat al-Isrā’: 23] Allah Almighty also says: RWe have enjoined upon man kindness to his parents. His mother bore him in weakness upon weakness, and his weaning took place within two years. Be grateful to Me and to your parents. To Me is the final returnS [Surat Luqmān: 14] Allah Almighty also says: RWe have enjoined upon man kindness to his parents. His mother bore him in hardship and gave birth to him in hardship, and his bearing and weaning take thirty months, until when he reaches full maturity and reaches forty years, he says, “My Lord, inspire me to be grateful to Your favors which You blessed me and my parents with, and to do righteous deeds that will make You pleased; and make my offspring righteous. Indeed, I repent to you, and I am one of those who submit to You [in Islam].”S [Surat al-Ahqāf: 15] Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported: “A man came to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, who is the most entitled among people to my good companionship?’ He said: ‘Your mother.’ The man said: ‘Who comes next?’ He said: ‘Your mother.’ The man asked again: ‘Who comes next?’ He replied: ‘Your mother.’ The man further said: ‘Who comes next?’ He said: ‘Your father.’” [Narrated by Muslim] This instruction of kindness to parents applies to both Muslim as well as non-Muslim parents: Asmā’ bint Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with her and her father) reported: “My mother, who was a polytheist, came to visit me with her son during the period of the peace treaty between Quraysh and the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him). I went to seek the advice of the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) saying: ‘My mother came willingly; should I maintain a good relation with her?’ He replied: ‘Yes, maintain a good relation with her.’” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri] Even if the parents tried hard to convert one to disbelief, Islam commands to disobey them, rather, he should remain a believer, although he should treat them kindly and respectfully. Allah Almighty says: RBut if they strive to make you associate partners with Me of what you have no knowledge, then do not obey them. Yet keep company with them in this world with kindness, and follow the way of those who turn to Me [in repentance]. Then to Me is your return, and I will inform you of what you used to doS [Surat Luqmān: 15] Islam does not forbid the Muslim to maintain good relations with his non-Muslim relatives or non-relatives as long as they are not combatant non-Muslims. Allah Almighty says: RAllah does not forbid you from being kind and just to those who did not fight against you nor did they drive you out of your homes. Indeed, Allah loves those who are justS [Surat al-Mumtahanah: 8] Islam commands kindness to children, the pinnacle of which is teaching them the rights of their Lord on them, as the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said to his cousin ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbās (may Allah be pleased with him and his father): “‘O boy, shall I teach you words that Allah will benefit you with?’ I said: ‘Of course.’ He said: ‘Be mindful of Allah, Allah will protect you. Be mindful of Allah, you will find Him in front of you. Be mindful of Allah during ease, He will ease your condition during adversity. If you ask, ask Allah alone; and if you seek help, then seek help from Allah alone.’” [Narrated by Ahmad: 4/287] Allah commanded the parents to teach their children what would benefit them in their religious and worldly life. Allah Almighty says: RO you who believe, protect yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is people and stones, and is overseen by rigorous and stern angels, who never disobey whatever Allah commands and do whatever they are commandedS [Surat at-Tahrīm: 6] ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) commented on Rprotect yourselves and your families from a FireS saying: “Discipline and teach them. ”The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) ordered the father to teach his children prayer so that they grow up accustomed to it. The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Order your children to pray at the age of seven.” [Narrated by Abu Dāwūd] The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) also said: “Everyone of you is guardian and is responsible for your subjects. The ruler is a guardian and is responsible for his subjects; the man is a guardian of his family and is responsible for his subjects; the woman is a guardian in her husband’s house and is responsible for her subjects; the servant is a guardian of his master’s property and is responsible for his subjects. So, all of you are guardians and are responsible for your subjects.” [Sahīh Ibn Hibbān: 4490] Islam commanded the father to provide a livelihood for his children and household - part of this is discussed earlier in point number (18). The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) illustrated the merit of providing for the children saying: “The best dinar a man spends is: a dinar that he spends on his family, a dinar that he spends on his mount in the cause of Allah, and a dinar that he spends on his companions in the cause of Allah.” Abu Qilābah (one of the narrators) said: “He began with the dependents.” Then he said: “And who is greater in reward than a man who spends on his young dependents, by virtue of which Allah saves them from want or brings them benefit and makes them rich.” [Narrated by Muslim: 994].

RYour Lord has ordained that you worship none but Him, and show kindness to parents. If one or both of them reach old age in your care, do not say to them a word of annoyance nor scold them, rather speak to them noble words,S [Surat al-Isrā’: 23]. Allah Almighty also says: RWe have enjoined upon man kindness to his parents. His mother bore him in weakness upon weakness, and his weaning took place within two years. Be grateful to Me and to your parents. To Me is the final returnS [Surat Luqmān: 14]. Allah Almighty also says: RWe have enjoined upon man kindness to his parents. His mother bore him in hardship and gave birth to him in hardship, and his bearing and weaning take thirty months, until when he reaches full maturity and reaches forty years, he says, “My Lord, inspire me to be grateful to Your favors which You blessed me and my parents with, and to do righteous deeds that will make You pleased; and make my offspring righteous. Indeed, I repent to you, and I am one of those who submit to You [in Islam].”S [Surat al-Ahqāf: 15].

Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported: “A man came to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, who is the most entitled among people to my good companionship?’ He said: ‘Your mother.’ The man said: ‘Who comes next?’ He said: ‘Your mother.’ The man asked again: ‘Who comes next?’ He replied: ‘Your mother.’ The man further said: ‘Who comes next?’ He said: ‘Your father.’” [Narrated by Muslim].

This instruction of kindness to parents applies to both Muslim as well as non-Muslim parents: Asmā’ bint Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with her and her father) reported: “My mother, who was a polytheist, came to visit me with her son during the period of the peace treaty between Quraysh and the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him). I went to seek the advice of the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) saying: ‘My mother came willingly; should I maintain a good relation with her?’ He replied: ‘Yes, maintain a good relation with her.’” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri].

Even if the parents tried hard to convert one to disbelief, Islam commands to disobey them, rather, he should remain a believer, although he should treat them kindly and respectfully. Allah Almighty says: RBut if they strive to make you associate partners with Me of what you have no knowledge, then do not obey them. Yet keep company with them in this world with kindness, and follow the way of those who turn to Me [in repentance]. Then to Me is your return, and I will inform you of what you used to doS [Surat Luqmān: 15].

Islam does not forbid the Muslim to maintain good relations with his non-Muslim relatives or non-relatives as long as they are not combatant non-Muslims. Allah Almighty says: RAllah does not forbid you from being kind and just to those who did not fight against you nor did they drive you out of your homes. Indeed, Allah loves those who are justS [Surat al-Mumtahanah: 8].

Islam commands kindness to children, the pinnacle of which is teaching them the rights of their Lord on them, as the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said to his cousin ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbās (may Allah be pleased with him and his father): “‘O boy, shall I teach you words that Allah will benefit you with?’ I said: ‘Of course.’ He said: ‘Be mindful of Allah, Allah will protect you. Be mindful of Allah, you will find Him in front of you. Be mindful of Allah during ease, He will ease your condition during adversity. If you ask, ask Allah alone; and if you seek help, then seek help from Allah alone.’” [Narrated by Ahmad: 4/287].

Allah commanded the parents to teach their children what would benefit them in their religious and worldly life. Allah Almighty says: RO you who believe, protect yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is people and stones, and is overseen by rigorous and stern angels, who never disobey whatever Allah commands and do whatever they are commandedS [Surat at-Tahrīm: 6].

‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) commented on Rprotect yourselves and your families from a FireS saying: “Discipline and teach them.”

The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) ordered the father to teach his children prayer so that they grow up accustomed to it. The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Order your children to pray at the age of seven.” [Narrated by Abu Dāwūd].

The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) also said: “Everyone of you is guardian and is responsible for your subjects. The ruler is a guardian and is responsible for his subjects; the man is a guardian of his family and is responsible for his subjects; the woman is a guardian in her husband’s house and is responsible for her subjects; the servant is a guardian of his master’s property and is responsible for his subjects. So, all of you are guardians and are responsible for your subjects.” [Sahīh Ibn Hibbān: 4490].

Islam commanded the father to provide a livelihood for his children and household - part of this is discussed earlier in point number (18). The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) illustrated the merit of providing for the children saying: “The best dinar a man spends is: a dinar that he spends on his family, a dinar that he spends on his mount in the cause of Allah, and a dinar that he spends on his companions in the cause of Allah.” Abu Qilābah (one of the narrators) said: “He began with the dependents.” Then he said: “And who is greater in reward than a man who spends on his young dependents, by virtue of which Allah saves them from want or brings them benefit and makes them rich.” [Narrated by Muslim: 994].

 30. Islam instructs the individual to observe fairness in words and deeds even with the enemies.

Allah Almighty is Just with regards to His actions and disposal of the affairs of His servants. His commands, prohibitions, creation, and destiny follow a straight path. Allah Almighty says: RAllah testifies that none has the right to be worshiped except Him, as do the angels and people of knowledge; He is the Upholder of justice. None has the right to be worshiped except Him, the All-Mighty, the All-WiseS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 18] Allah orders justice in His saying: RSay [O Muhammad]: “My Lord has ordered justice...”S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 29] All the prophets and messengers (peace be upon them) called to justice, as Allah Almighty said: RWe have already sent Our messengers with clear evidences and sent down with them the Scripture and the balance so that the people may maintain [their affairs] in justice...S [Surat al-Hadīd: 25] The “balance” here refers to justice in words and actions.Islam orders fairness in words and actions even with the enemies. Allah Almighty says: RO you who believe, stand up for justice as witnesses for Allah, even against yourselves or parents and relatives. Whether one is rich or poor, Allah takes best care of both. So do not let your desires to cause you swerve from justice. If you distort your testimony or refuse to give it, then Allah is indeed All-Aware of what you doS [Surat an-Nisā’: 135] Allah Almighty also says: R...However, do not let the hatred of a people who barred you from the Sacred Mosque lead you to transgress. Cooperate with one another in goodness and righteousness, and do not cooperate in sin and transgression. And fear Allah, for Allah is severe in punishmentS [Surat al-Mā’idah: 2] He also says: Rand do not let the hatred of a people lead you away from justice. Be just; that is closer to righteousness...S [Surat al-Mā’idah: 8] Do you find in any of today’s man-made laws or other religions such a command to speak the truth even if it is against oneself, parents, or relatives?! Islam commands justice with both friend and foe.The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) ordered treating the children fairly.‘Āmir reported: “I heard Al-Nu‘mān ibn Bashīr (may Allah be pleased with him and his father) saying while he was on the pulpit: ‘My father gave me a gift. ‘Amrah bint Rawāhah (his mother) said: “I would not agree to this unless you make the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) a witness to it.” My father went to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) and said: “I gave a gift to my son from ‘Amrah bint Rawāhah, but she ordered me to make you, O Messenger of Allah, a witness to it.” The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) asked: “Have you given the like of it to all of your children?” He replied in the negative. The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Then fear Allah and treat your children equally.” My father then returned and took back his gift.’” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 2587].

RAllah testifies that none has the right to be worshiped except Him, as do the angels and people of knowledge; He is the Upholder of justice. None has the right to be worshiped except Him, the All-Mighty, the All-WiseS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 18].

Allah orders justice in His saying: RSay [O Muhammad]: “My Lord has ordered justice...”S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 29].

All the prophets and messengers (peace be upon them) called to justice, as Allah Almighty said: RWe have already sent Our messengers with clear evidences and sent down with them the Scripture and the balance so that the people may maintain [their affairs] in justice...S [Surat al-Hadīd: 25].

The “balance” here refers to justice in words and actions.

Islam orders fairness in words and actions even with the enemies. Allah Almighty says: RO you who believe, stand up for justice as witnesses for Allah, even against yourselves or parents and relatives. Whether one is rich or poor, Allah takes best care of both. So do not let your desires to cause you swerve from justice. If you distort your testimony or refuse to give it, then Allah is indeed All-Aware of what you doS [Surat an-Nisā’: 135]. Allah Almighty also says: R...However, do not let the hatred of a people who barred you from the Sacred Mosque lead you to transgress. Cooperate with one another in goodness and righteousness, and do not cooperate in sin and transgression. And fear Allah, for Allah is severe in punishmentS [Surat al-Mā’idah: 2].

He also says: Rand do not let the hatred of a people lead you away from justice. Be just; that is closer to righteousness...S [Surat al-Mā’idah: 8].

Do you find in any of today’s man-made laws or other religions such a command to speak the truth even if it is against oneself, parents, or relatives?! Islam commands justice with both friend and foe.

The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) ordered treating the children fairly.

‘Āmir reported: “I heard Al-Nu‘mān ibn Bashīr (may Allah be pleased with him and his father) saying while he was on the pulpit: ‘My father gave me a gift. ‘Amrah bint Rawāhah (his mother) said: “I would not agree to this unless you make the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) a witness to it.” My father went to the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) and said: “I gave a gift to my son from ‘Amrah bint Rawāhah, but she ordered me to make you, O Messenger of Allah, a witness to it.” The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) asked: “Have you given the like of it to all of your children?” He replied in the negative. The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Then fear Allah and treat your children equally.” My father then returned and took back his gift.’” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 2587].

Justice is the only means to secure stability of people and countries. Without it, people will not feel safe about their religions, their lives, children, honor, properties, and countries. For this reason, the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) ordered Muslims to migrate to Abyssinia after they were persecuted at the hands of the disbelievers in Makkah. The reason for choosing Abyssinia was that its king was just and none was wronged under his rule.

 31. Islam commands kindness to all people and it advocates noble morals and virtuous deeds.

Islam instructs kindness to all people as Allah Almighty said: RIndeed, Allah orders justice and good conduct and giving out to relatives...S [Surat an-Nahl: 90] Allah Almighty also says: Rthose who spend in times of prosperity and adversity, and who restrain their anger and pardon people; for Allah loves those who do goodS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 134] The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Verily, Allah has enjoined kindness in all things; so when you kill, kill in a good way; and when you slaughter, slaughter in a good way. Let one of you sharpen his blade and spare the slaughtered animal the suffering.” [Narrated by Muslim: 1955] Islam advocates noble morals and virtuous deeds. Allah Almighty describes the character of Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) saying: R those who follow the Messenger – the unlettered Prophet – whose description they find in their Torah and the Gospel. He enjoins them to do what is good and forbids them from what is evil; he makes lawful for them what is pure and makes unlawful for them from what is impure; he relieves them of their burden and the shackles that were on them. So those who believe in him, they honor and support him, and follow the light which is sent down with him – it is they who will be successful.”S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 157] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “O ‘Ā’ishah, indeed, Allah is gentle and He loves gentleness, and He gives for gentleness what He does not give for violence and what He does not give for anything else.” [Narrated by Muslim: 2593] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) also said: “Allah has forbidden you to be undutiful to your mothers, to bury your daughters alive, to withhold (what you should give), or demand (what you do not deserve). And Allah has disliked that you engage in gossip, ask too many questions, or waste your property.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 2408] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said:“You will not enter Paradise until you believe and you will not believe until you love one another. Shall I tell you of something which, if you do, will make you love one another? Spread the greeting of peace among yourselves.” [Narrated by Muslim: 54].

RIndeed, Allah orders justice and good conduct and giving out to relatives...S [Surat an-Nahl: 90]. Allah Almighty also says: Rthose who spend in times of prosperity and adversity, and who restrain their anger and pardon people; for Allah loves those who do goodS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 134].

The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Verily, Allah has enjoined kindness in all things; so when you kill, kill in a good way; and when you slaughter, slaughter in a good way. Let one of you sharpen his blade and spare the slaughtered animal the suffering.” [Narrated by Muslim: 1955].

Islam advocates noble morals and virtuous deeds. Allah Almighty describes the character of Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) saying: R those who follow the Messenger – the unlettered Prophet – whose description they find in their Torah and the Gospel. He enjoins them to do what is good and forbids them from what is evil; he makes lawful for them what is pure and makes unlawful for them from what is impure; he relieves them of their burden and the shackles that were on them. So those who believe in him, they honor and support him, and follow the light which is sent down with him – it is they who will be successful.”S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 157].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said:               “O ‘Ā’ishah, indeed, Allah is gentle and He loves gentleness, and He gives for gentleness what He does not give for violence and what He does not give for anything else.” [Narrated by Muslim: 2593].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) also said: “Allah has forbidden you to be undutiful to your mothers, to bury your daughters alive, to withhold (what you should give), or demand (what you do not deserve). And Allah has disliked that you engage in gossip, ask too many questions, or waste your property.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 2408].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “You will not enter Paradise until you believe and you will not believe until you love one another. Shall I tell you of something which, if you do, will make you love one another? Spread the greeting of peace among yourselves.” [Narrated by Muslim: 54].

 32. Islam instructs the adoption of praiseworthy morals such as honesty, fulfillment of trusts, chastity, modesty, bravery, generosity, aiding the needy, helping the distressed, feeding the hungry, treating neighbors kindly, maintaining kinship ties, and being kind to animals.

Islam instructs adopting praiseworthy morals. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “I have been sent to perfect noble morals.” [Sahīh al-Adab al-Mufrad: 207] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) also said: “Indeed, among the most beloved and nearest of you to me on the Day of Judgment are those of you who have the best morals, and the most hated of you to me and farthest from me on the Day of Judgment are the talkative, the pompous, and the Mutafayhiqūn.” They asked: “O Messenger of Allah, we know the talkative and the pompous, but we do not know who the Mutafayhiqūn are.” He replied: “The arrogant.” [Al-Silsilah al-Sahīhah: 791] ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr (may Allah be pleased with him and his father) reported: “The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) was neither obscene, nor would he use obscene language, and he used to say: ‘Verily, the best of you are those who have the best morals.’” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 3559] There are many other verses and Hadīths that prove, in general terms, that Islam encourages noble morals and virtuous deeds.Islam prescribes adopting truthfulness. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Adhere to truthfulness, for truthfulness leads to righteousness and righteousness leads to Paradise. A man will keep telling the truth and striving to tell the truth until he will be recorded with Allah as the most truthful.” [Narrated by Muslim: 2607] Islam prescribes fulfilling the trust. Allah Almighty says: RIndeed, Allah commands you to render trusts to whom they are due...S [Surat an-Nisā’: 58] Islam prescribes adopting chastity. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “There are three kinds of people for whom Allah has taken upon Himself to help them: one of them is the one getting married seeking chastity.” [Narrated by Al-Tirmidhi: 1655] The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) used to supplicate saying: “Allāhumma inni as’aluka al-huda wa at-tuqa wa al-‘afāf wa al-ghina (O Allah, I ask You for guidance, piety, chastity, and being free from want).” [Narrated by Muslim: 2721] Islam prescribes modesty. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Modesty brings nothing but good.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 6117] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) also said: “Each religion has its own distinctive moral; Islam’s distinctive moral is modesty.” [Narrated by Al-Bayhaqi in Shu‘ab al-Imān: 6/2619] Islam also prescribes bravery. Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) reported: “The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) was the best, the bravest, and the most generous of all people. Once when the people of Madinah got frightened, the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) rode a horse and went ahead of them.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 2820] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) used to seek refuge in Allah from cowardice, by saying: “Allāhumma inni a‘ūdhu bika min al-jubn (O Allah, I seek refuge in You from cowardice).” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 6374] Furthermore, Islam prescribes generosity. Allah Almighty says: RThe likeness of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is like a grain that sprouts seven ears, each ear bearing a hundred grains. And Allah gives multiple [rewards] for whom He wills. And Allah is All-Encompassing, All-KnowingS [Surat al-Baqarah: 261] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) was well-known for his generosity. Ibn ‘Abbās (may Allah be pleased with him and his father) reported: “The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) was the most generous of people, and he used to be more generous than ever in Ramadān when Gabriel would meet him. Gabriel (peace be upon him) used to meet him every night during Ramadān to revise the Qur’an with him and when Gabriel met him, he was more generous than the fast wind.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 1902] Other mandatory morals that Islam prescribes are: aiding the needy, helping the distressed, feeding the hungry, treating neighbors kindly, maintaining kinship ties, and being kind to animals.‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr (may Allah be pleased with him and his father) reported: “A man asked the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him): ‘Which deed in Islam is the best?’ He said: ‘Feeding people and extending the greeting of peace to those you know and those you do not know.’” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 12] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “While a man was walking on a road, he became very thirsty. He found a well and went down in it and drank. When he came out, there was a dog panting and eating moist of the earth out of thirst. The man said: ‘This dog is so thirsty just as I was.’ So, he went down into the well, filled his shoe with water and held it with his mouth until he climbed out. Then, he gave the dog water to drink. Allah accepted his deed and, thus, forgave him.” They said: “O Messenger of Allah, are we rewarded for taking care of animals?” He said: “Yes, there is a reward for (quenching the thirst of) every living being.” [Sahīh Ibn Hibbān: 544] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “The one who looks after a widow and a needy person is like one who performs Jihad in the cause of Allah, or one who regularly observes voluntary prayer at night and fasting during the day.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 5353] Islam stresses the relatives’ rights and mandates maintaining kinship ties. Allah Almighty says: RThe Prophet has a greater claim over the believers than their own selves, and his wives are their mothers. And blood relatives are more entitled [to inheritance] than other believers and emigrants according to the Book of Allah, unless you do good to your close associates [through bequest]. This is written in the RecordS [Surat al-Ahzāb: 6] It also warns against severing kinship ties, considering it on a par with causing mischief on earth. Allah Almighty says: RSo would you perhaps, if you turned away, cause corruption on earth and sever your kinship ties? Those are the ones whom Allah has cursed, so He deafened them and blinded their sightsS [Surat Muhammad: 22-23] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “The one who severs kinship ties will not be admitted to Paradise.” [Narrated by Muslim: 2556] The relatives with whom ties must be maintained are: the parents, brothers, sisters, paternal uncles and aunts, and maternal uncles and aunts.Similarly, Islam emphasizes the right of the neighbor even if he was a non-Muslim. Allah Almighty says: RWorship Allah and do not associate any partners with Him. Be kind to parents, relatives, orphans, the needy, near and distant neighbors, close friends, wayfarers, and slaves whom you own. For Allah does not like those who are arrogant, boastful,S [Surat an-Nisā’: 36] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Gabriel kept enjoining the good treatment of neighbors until I thought he would make neighbors heirs.”[Narrated by Abu Dāwūd: 5152].

“I have been sent to perfect noble morals.” [Sahīh al-Adab al-Mufrad: 207].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) also said: “Indeed, among the most beloved and nearest of you to me on the Day of Judgment are those of you who have the best morals, and the most hated of you to me and farthest from me on the Day of Judgment are the talkative, the pompous, and the Mutafayhiqūn.” They asked: “O Messenger of Allah, we know the talkative and the pompous, but we do not know who the Mutafayhiqūn are.” He replied: “The arrogant.” [Al-Silsilah al-Sahīhah: 791].

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr (may Allah be pleased with him and his father) reported: “The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) was neither obscene, nor would he use obscene language, and he used to say: ‘Verily, the best of you are those who have the best morals.’” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 3559].

There are many other verses and Hadīths that prove, in general terms, that Islam encourages noble morals and virtuous deeds.

Islam prescribes adopting truthfulness. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Adhere to truthfulness, for truthfulness leads to righteousness and righteousness leads to Paradise. A man will keep telling the truth and striving to tell the truth until he will be recorded with Allah as the most truthful.” [Narrated by Muslim: 2607].

Islam prescribes fulfilling the trust. Allah Almighty says: RIndeed, Allah commands you to render trusts to whom they are due...S [Surat an-Nisā’: 58].

Islam prescribes adopting chastity. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “There are three kinds of people for whom Allah has taken upon Himself to help them: one of them is the one getting married seeking chastity.” [Narrated by Al-Tirmidhi: 1655].

The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) used to supplicate saying: “Allāhumma inni as’aluka al-huda wa at-tuqa wa al-‘afāf wa al-ghina (O Allah, I ask You for guidance, piety, chastity, and being free from want).” [Narrated by Muslim: 2721].

Islam prescribes modesty. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Modesty brings nothing but good.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 6117].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) also said: “Each religion has its own distinctive moral; Islam’s distinctive moral is modesty.” [Narrated by Al-Bayhaqi in Shu‘ab al-Imān: 6/2619].

Islam also prescribes bravery. Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) reported: “The Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) was the best, the bravest, and the most generous of all people. Once when the people of Madinah got frightened, the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) rode a horse and went ahead of them.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 2820].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) used to seek refuge in Allah from cowardice, by saying: “Allāhumma inni a‘ūdhu bika min al-jubn (O Allah, I seek refuge in You from cowardice).” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 6374].

Furthermore, Islam prescribes generosity. Allah Almighty says: RThe likeness of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is like a grain that sprouts seven ears, each ear bearing a hundred grains. And Allah gives multiple [rewards] for whom He wills. And Allah is All-Encompassing, All-KnowingS [Surat al-Baqarah: 261].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) was well-known for his generosity. Ibn ‘Abbās (may Allah be pleased with him and his father) reported: “The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) was the most generous of people, and he used to be more generous than ever in Ramadān when Gabriel would meet him. Gabriel (peace be upon him) used to meet him every night during Ramadān to revise the Qur’an with him and when Gabriel met him, he was more generous than the fast wind.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 1902].

Other mandatory morals that Islam prescribes are: aiding the needy, helping the distressed, feeding the hungry, treating neighbors kindly, maintaining kinship ties, and being kind to animals.

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr (may Allah be pleased with him and his father) reported: “A man asked the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him): ‘Which deed in Islam is the best?’ He said: ‘Feeding people and extending the greeting of peace to those you know and those you do not know.’” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 12].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “While a man was walking on a road, he became very thirsty. He found a well and went down in it and drank. When he came out, there was a dog panting and eating moist of the earth out of thirst. The man said: ‘This dog is so thirsty just as I was.’ So, he went down into the well, filled his shoe with water and held it with his mouth until he climbed out. Then, he gave the dog water to drink. Allah accepted his deed and, thus, forgave him.” They said: “O Messenger of Allah, are we rewarded for taking care of animals?” He said: “Yes, there is a reward for (quenching the thirst of) every living being.” [Sahīh Ibn Hibbān: 544].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “The one who looks after a widow and a needy person is like one who performs Jihad in the cause of Allah, or one who regularly observes voluntary prayer at night and fasting during the day.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 5353].

Islam stresses the relatives’ rights and mandates maintaining kinship ties. Allah Almighty says: RThe Prophet has a greater claim over the believers than their own selves, and his wives are their mothers. And blood relatives are more entitled [to inheritance] than other believers and emigrants according to the Book of Allah, unless you do good to your close associates [through bequest]. This is written in the RecordS [Surat al-Ahzāb: 6].

It also warns against severing kinship ties, considering it on a par with causing mischief on earth. Allah Almighty says: RSo would you perhaps, if you turned away, cause corruption on earth and sever your kinship ties? Those are the ones whom Allah has cursed, so He deafened them and blinded their sightsS [Surat Muhammad: 22-23].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “The one who severs kinship ties will not be admitted to Paradise.” [Narrated by Muslim: 2556].

The relatives with whom ties must be maintained are: the parents, brothers, sisters, paternal uncles and aunts, and maternal uncles and aunts.

Similarly, Islam emphasizes the right of the neighbor even if he was a non-Muslim. Allah Almighty says: RWorship Allah and do not associate any partners with Him. Be kind to parents, relatives, orphans, the needy, near and distant neighbors, close friends, wayfarers, and slaves whom you own. For Allah does not like those who are arrogant, boastful,S [Surat an-Nisā’: 36].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Gabriel kept enjoining the good treatment of neighbors until I thought he would make neighbors heirs.” [Narrated by Abu Dāwūd: 5152].

 33. Islam made lawful good food and drink. It prescribes the purification of the heart, the body, and the house, which is why it made marriage lawful. Allah commanded all the prophets (peace be upon them) with those commands as they call to all sorts of good.

Islam made lawful good food and drink. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Indeed, Allah is good and accepts only what is good. And Allah commanded the believers with what He commanded the messengers. He says: RO messengers, eat from the good foods and work righteousness. Indeed, I am All-Knowing of what you doS [Surat al-Mu’minūn: 51] And He says: RO you who believe, eat from the good things which We have provided for you, and be grateful to Allah if it is Him that you worshipS [Surat al-Baqarah: 172] He then mentioned a person who travels for so long that his hair is disheveled and covered with dust. He lifts his hand towards the sky (saying): ‘O Allah, O Allah’, but his food is unlawful, his drink is unlawful, and his clothing is unlawful, and he has been nourished by the unlawful. So how can his supplication be accepted?” [Narrated by Muslim: 1015] Allah Almighty also says: RSay, “Who has forbidden the adornments and lawful provisions that Allah has brought forth for His slaves?” Say, “They are for the believers in the life of this world, and they will be exclusively for them on the Day of Resurrection. This is how We make the verses clear for people who have knowledge.”S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 32] Islam prescribes the purification of the heart, the body, and the house, which is why it made marriage lawful. Allah commanded all the prophets (peace be upon them) with those commands as they call to all sorts of good. RAllah has made for you spouses of your own kind, and has given you through your spouses children and grandchildren, and has given you provision from good things. Do they still believe in falsehood and deny the favors of Allah?S [Surat an-Nahl: 72] Allah Almighty also says: RAnd purify your clothing.and shun idol worshiping,S [Surat al-Muddaththir: 4-5] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “He who has in his heart an atom’s weight of arrogance will not enter Paradise.” Someone said: “One likes to wear beautiful clothes and shoes?” The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Indeed, Allah is beautiful and He loves beauty. Arrogance means rejecting the truth and despising people.” [Narrated by Muslim: 91].

“Indeed, Allah is good and accepts only what is good. And Allah commanded the believers with what He commanded the messengers. He says: RO messengers, eat from the good foods and work righteousness. Indeed, I am All-Knowing of what you doS [Surat al-Mu’minūn: 51] And He says: RO you who believe, eat from the good things which We have provided for you, and be grateful to Allah if it is Him that you worshipS [Surat al-Baqarah: 172] He then mentioned a person who travels for so long that his hair is disheveled and covered with dust. He lifts his hand towards the sky (saying): ‘O Allah, O Allah’, but his food is unlawful, his drink is unlawful, and his clothing is unlawful, and he has been nourished by the unlawful. So how can his supplication be accepted?” [Narrated by Muslim: 1015].

Allah Almighty also says: RSay, “Who has forbidden the adornments and lawful provisions that Allah has brought forth for His slaves?” Say, “They are for the believers in the life of this world, and they will be exclusively for them on the Day of Resurrection. This is how We make the verses clear for people who have knowledge.”S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 32].

Islam prescribes the purification of the heart, the body, and the house, which is why it made marriage lawful. Allah commanded all the prophets (peace be upon them) with those commands as they call to all sorts of good. RAllah has made for you spouses of your own kind, and has given you through your spouses children and grandchildren, and has given you provision from good things. Do they still believe in falsehood and deny the favors of Allah?S [Surat an-Nahl: 72]. Allah Almighty also says: RAnd purify your clothing. and shun idol worshiping, S [Surat al-Muddaththir: 4-5].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “He who has in his heart an atom’s weight of arrogance will not enter Paradise.” Someone said: “One likes to wear beautiful clothes and shoes?” The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Indeed, Allah is beautiful and He loves beauty. Arrogance means rejecting the truth and despising people.” [Narrated by Muslim: 91].

 34. Islam prohibits the major sins such as polytheism, disbelief, worship of idols, attributing something to Allah without knowledge, killing of children or an inviolable soul, causing mischief on earth, magic, apparent and hidden indecencies, adultery, sodomy, usury, and eating a dead animal or animals slaughtered for the sake of idols. Furthermore, Allah prohibited eating the flesh of swine, all the impurities, consuming the property of an orphan, defrauding in measures and weights, and severing kinship ties. All prophets (peace be upon them) unanimously agreed on forbidding the above prohibitions.

Islam prohibits the major sins such as polytheism, disbelief, worship of idols, attributing something to Allah without knowledge, and the killing of children. Allah Almighty said: RSay [O Prophet], “Come, I will recite to you what your Lord has forbidden to you: do not associate any partners with Him, and honor your parents. Do not kill your children for fear of poverty, for We provide for you and for them. Do not approach shameful acts, whether openly or in secret. Do not kill the soul sanctified by Allah, except lawfully. This is what He commands you, so that you may understand.Do not approach the orphan’s property, except to improve it, until he attains maturity. Give full measure and weight with justice. We do not burden any soul beyond what it can bear. And maintain justice when you speak, even if it be about a close relative. And fulfill the covenant of Allah. This is what He commands you, so that you may take heedS [Surat al-An‘ām: 151-152] Allah Almighty also says: RSay, “My Lord has forbidden shameful acts done openly or in secret, sinfulness, unjustified aggression, associating partners with Allah for which He has not sent down any authority, and saying about Allah that of which you have no knowledge.”S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 33] Islam prohibits the killing of the inviolable soul. Allah Almighty says: RDo not kill any soul that Allah has forbidden, except in the course of justice. If anyone is killed wrongfully, We have given his heir authority [of compensation], but he should not exceed the bounds in killing, for he is already supported [by law] S [Surat al-Isrā’: 33] Allah Almighty also says: Rand those who do not invoke besides Allah another god, and who do not kill a soul whom Allah has forbidden, except in the course of justice, and who do not commit adultery, for whoever does any of this will face the penalty,S [Surat al-Furqān: 68] Islam prohibits causing mischief on earth. Allah Almighty says: RDo not spread corruption on earth after it has been set aright,...S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 56] Allah Almighty reported the statement of Shu‘ayb to his people: R...He said, “O my people, worship Allah; you have no god other than Him. There has come to you a clear proof from your Lord. Give full measure and weight, and do not defraud people of their property, and do not spread corruption in the land after it has been set aright. That is best for you, if you are [truly] believersS [Surat al-A‘rāf: 85] Islam prohibits magic as Allah Almighty said: RThrow what is in your right hand; it will swallow up what they have contrived. They have only contrived a magic trick, and the magician will never prosper, wherever he goes.”S [Surat Taha: 69] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Avoid the seven destructive sins.” They said: “O Messenger of Allah, what are they?” He said: “Associating partners with Allah; magic (sorcery); killing a person whom Allah has prohibited except by legal right; consuming usury; devouring the property of an orphan; fleeing from the battlefield; slandering chaste, innocent and believing women.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 6857] Islam prohibits apparent and hidden indecencies, adultery, and sodomy; the proofs of which are mentioned at the beginning of this point. Islam also forbids usury, as Allah Almighty said: RO you who believe, fear Allah and give up what remains [due to you] of usury, if you are true believers.But if you do not do it, then beware of a declaration of war from Allah and His Messenger. However, if you repent, you may retain your capital – neither harming nor suffering harmS [Surat al-Baqarah: 278-279] Allah has not warned any sinner except the consumer of usury because it involves the destruction of religions, homes, properties, and souls.In addition, Islam prohibits eating a dead animal, animals slaughtered for the sake of others than Allah, and the flesh of swine. Allah Almighty says: RForbidden to you are carrion, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which is sacrificed to other than Allah; and that which is killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by being gored; and that which is partly eaten by a predator unless you slaughter it [before it dies]; and that which is sacrificed to idols. Also it is forbidden to use arrows [of chance] to determine your decisions. This is all evil practice...S [Surat al-Mā’idah: 3] Islam also prohibits the consumption of intoxicants and all kinds of impurities and filth, as Allah Almighty said: RO you who believe, intoxicants, gambling, idols and divining arrows are evil, of Satan’s work; therefore avoid such [evil], so that you may be successful.Satan only wants to create enmity and hatred between you through intoxicants and gambling, and to prevent you from remembering Allah and from prayer. Will you not then abstain?S [Surat al-Mā’idah: 90-91] It is previously mentioned in point number (31) how the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) is described in the Torah as the one who prohibits impurities. Allah Almighty says: Rthose who follow the Messenger – the unlettered Prophet – whose description they find in their Torah and the Gospel. He enjoins them to do what is good and forbids them from what is evil; he makes lawful for them what is pure and makes unlawful for them from what is impure; he relieves them of their burden and the shackles that were on them...S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 157] Islam prohibits the unlawful consumption of the orphan’s property. Allah Almighty says: RGive orphans their wealth, and do not exchange your bad possessions for their good ones, nor consume their wealth by mixing it with your own; for this is indeed a great sinS [Surat an-Nisā’: 2] Allah Almighty also says: RIndeed, those who consume the orphans’ property unjustly, they only consume fire into their bellies, and they will burn in a Blazing FireS [Surat an-Nisā’: 10] Islam prohibits defrauding in measures and weights. Allah Almighty says: RWoe to the defrauders,those who take full measure when they take from others,but they give less when they measure or weigh for them.Do they really not think that they will be resurrected?S [Surat al-Mutaffifīn: 1-4].

RSay [O Prophet], “Come, I will recite to you what your Lord has forbidden to you: do not associate any partners with Him, and honor your parents. Do not kill your children for fear of poverty, for We provide for you and for them. Do not approach shameful acts, whether openly or in secret. Do not kill the soul sanctified by Allah, except lawfully. This is what He commands you, so that you may understand. Do not approach the orphan’s property, except to improve it, until he attains maturity. Give full measure and weight with justice. We do not burden any soul beyond what it can bear. And maintain justice when you speak, even if it be about a close relative. And fulfill the covenant of Allah. This is what He commands you, so that you may take heedS [Surat al-An‘ām: 151-152]. Allah Almighty also says: RSay, “My Lord has forbidden shameful acts done openly or in secret, sinfulness, unjustified aggression, associating partners with Allah for which He has not sent down any authority, and saying about Allah that of which you have no knowledge.”S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 33].

Islam prohibits the killing of the inviolable soul. Allah Almighty says: RDo not kill any soul that Allah has forbidden, except in the course of justice. If anyone is killed wrongfully, We have given his heir authority [of compensation], but he should not exceed the bounds in killing, for he is already supported [by law] S [Surat al-Isrā’: 33]. Allah Almighty also says: Rand those who do not invoke besides Allah another god, and who do not kill a soul whom Allah has forbidden, except in the course of justice, and who do not commit adultery, for whoever does any of this will face the penalty,S [Surat al-Furqān: 68]. Islam prohibits causing mischief on earth. Allah Almighty says: RDo not spread corruption on earth after it has been set aright,...S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 56]. Allah Almighty reported the statement of Shu‘ayb to his people: R...He said, “O my people, worship Allah; you have no god other than Him. There has come to you a clear proof from your Lord. Give full measure and weight, and do not defraud people of their property, and do not spread corruption in the land after it has been set aright. That is best for you, if you are [truly] believersS [Surat al-A‘rāf: 85]. Islam prohibits magic as Allah Almighty said: RThrow what is in your right hand; it will swallow up what they have contrived. They have only contrived a magic trick, and the magician will never prosper, wherever he goes.”S [Surat Taha: 69].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Avoid the seven destructive sins.” They said: “O Messenger of Allah, what are they?” He said: “Associating partners with Allah; magic (sorcery); killing a person whom Allah has prohibited except by legal right; consuming usury; devouring the property of an orphan; fleeing from the battlefield; slandering chaste, innocent and believing women.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 6857].

Islam prohibits apparent and hidden indecencies, adultery, and sodomy; the proofs of which are mentioned at the beginning of this point. Islam also forbids usury, as Allah Almighty said: RO you who believe, fear Allah and give up what remains [due to you] of usury, if you are true believers. But if you do not do it, then beware of a declaration of war from Allah and His Messenger. However, if you repent, you may retain your capital – neither harming nor suffering harmS [Surat al-Baqarah: 278-279].

Allah has not warned any sinner except the consumer of usury because it involves the destruction of religions, homes, properties, and souls.

In addition, Islam prohibits eating a dead animal, animals slaughtered for the sake of others than Allah, and the flesh of swine. Allah Almighty says: RForbidden to you are carrion, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which is sacrificed to other than Allah; and that which is killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by being gored; and that which is partly eaten by a predator unless you slaughter it [before it dies]; and that which is sacrificed to idols. Also it is forbidden to use arrows [of chance] to determine your decisions. This is all evil practice...S [Surat al-Mā’idah: 3].

Islam also prohibits the consumption of intoxicants and all kinds of impurities and filth, as Allah Almighty said: RO you who believe, intoxicants, gambling, idols and divining arrows are evil, of Satan’s work; therefore avoid such [evil], so that you may be successful. Satan only wants to create enmity and hatred between you through intoxicants and gambling, and to prevent you from remembering Allah and from prayer. Will you not then abstain?S [Surat al-Mā’idah: 90-91].

It is previously mentioned in point number (31) how the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) is described in the Torah as the one who prohibits impurities. Allah Almighty says: Rthose who follow the Messenger – the unlettered Prophet – whose description they find in their Torah and the Gospel. He enjoins them to do what is good and forbids them from what is evil; he makes lawful for them what is pure and makes unlawful for them from what is impure; he relieves them of their burden and the shackles that were on them...S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 157].

Islam prohibits the unlawful consumption of the orphan’s property. Allah Almighty says: RGive orphans their wealth, and do not exchange your bad possessions for their good ones, nor consume their wealth by mixing it with your own; for this is indeed a great sinS [Surat an-Nisā’: 2]. Allah Almighty also says: RIndeed, those who consume the orphans’ property unjustly, they only consume fire into their bellies, and they will burn in a Blazing FireS [Surat an-Nisā’: 10].

Islam prohibits defrauding in measures and weights. Allah Almighty says: RWoe to the defrauders, those who take full measure when they take from others, but they give less when they measure or weigh for them. Do they really not think that they will be resurrected?S [Surat al-Mutaffifīn: 1-4].

Islam also prohibits severing kinship ties, and its proofs from the Qur’an and Sunnah are discussed in point number (31). In short, all prophets and messengers (peace be upon them) agreed on prohibiting the above prohibitions.

 35. Islam forbids blameworthy traits such as lying, cheating, betrayal, treason, deception, envy, malicious scheming, theft, transgression, oppression, and every other evil trait.

Islam prohibits all blameworthy traits, as Allah Almighty says: RDo not turn your face away from people [in contempt], and do not walk on earth in arrogance. Indeed, Allah does not like anyone who is arrogant and boastfulS [Surat Luqmān: 18] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Indeed, among the most beloved and nearest of you to me on the Day of Judgment are those of you who have the best morals, and, indeed, the most hated of you to me and farthest from me on the Day of Judgment are the talkative, the pompous, and the Mutafayhiqūn.” They asked: “O Messenger of Allah, we know the talkative and the pompous, but we do not know who the Mutafayhiqūn are.” He replied: “The arrogant.” [Al-Silsilah al-Sahīhah: 791] Islam prohibits lying, as Allah Almighty says: R...Indeed, Allah does not guide one who is a transgressor and a liarS [Surat Ghāfir: 28] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Beware of lying, for indeed lying leads to evil doing, and evil doing leads to Hellfire, and a man would continue to lie and be keen on lying until he is recorded in the sight of Allah as a liar.” [Narrated by Muslim: 2607] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Signs of the hypocrite are three: when he speaks, he lies; when he makes a promise, he breaks it; and when he is entrusted with something, he betrays the trust.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 6095] Islam prohibits cheating: According to the Hadīth: “The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) happened to pass by a heap of food (corn). He thrust his hand in that (heap) and his fingers were moistened. He said: ‘O owner of the food, What is this?’ He replied: ‘O Messenger of Allah, these have been drenched by rainfall.’ He (the Prophet) remarked: ‘Why did you not place this (the drenched part of the heap) on the top so that people could see it? He who cheats is not of me (is not my follower).’” [Narrated by Muslim: 102] Islam prohibits treachery, betrayal, and deception. Allah Almighty says: RO you who believe, do not betray Allah and the Messenger, nor betray your trusts knowinglyS [Surat al-Anfāl: 27] And Allah Almighty said: RThose who fulfill the covenant of Allah and do not break the contractS [Surat ar-Ra‘d: 20] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) used to tell his dispatched armies whenever they started a campaign: “Fight, but do not steal from the spoils of war, do not be treacherous, do not mutilate, and do not kill children.” [Narrated by Muslim: 1731] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Whoever has the following four characteristics will be a sheer hypocrite and whoever has one of the following four characteristics will have one characteristic of hypocrisy unless and until he gives it up: whenever he is entrusted, he betrays, whenever he speaks, he lies, whenever he makes a covenant, he proves treacherous, and whenever he quarrels, he deviates from the truth.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 34] Islam prohibits envy as Allah Almighty says: ROr do they envy people for what Allah has given them out of His bounty? We gave the descendants of Abraham the Book and wisdom, and We gave them a great authorityS [Surat an-Nisā’: 54] Allah Almighty also says: RMany of the people of the Book wish they could turn you back to disbelief after you have believed, out of the envy in their hearts, after the truth has become evident to them. But pardon and overlook until Allah passes His decree, for Allah is Most Capable of all things [Surat al-Baqarah: 109] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “The disease of the nations before you is creeping towards you: envy and hatred, it is the Hāliqah (shaver). I do not speak of what shaves the hair, but what shaves the religion. By the One in Whose Hand my soul is, you will not enter Paradise until you believe, and you will not believe until you love one another. Shall I tell you what will strengthen that for you? Spread the greetings of peace among you.” [Narrated by Al-Tirmidhi: 2510] Islam prohibits evil scheming, as Allah Almighty says: RThus We have placed in every city the most wicked ones to conspire in it, yet they only conspire against themselves, without even realizing itS [Surat al-An‘ām: 123] Allah Almighty reported that the Jews conspired to murder the Messiah (peace be upon him) but Allah turned their evil scheming against them, for indeed evil scheming harms none but its plotter. Allah Almighty says: RWhen Jesus sensed disbelief from them, he said, “Who are my helpers in the cause of Allah?” The disciples said, “We are helpers of Allah. We believe in Allah; so bear witness that we are Muslims [submitting to Allah].”“Our Lord, we believe in what You have sent down and we follow the messenger; so count us among those who bear witness [to the truth].”And [the disbelievers] devised a plan, but Allah also made a plan, and Allah is the best of planners.And [remember] when Allah said, “O Jesus, I will take you and raise you up to Myself and deliver you from those who disbelieve, and make those who follow you above those who disbelieve until the Day of Resurrection. Then you will all return to Me, and I will judge between you concerning that over which you differedS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 52-55] In addition, Allah Almighty reported that the people of Prophet Sālih (peace be upon him) wanted to kill him through evil scheming, but Allah returned their scheming against themselves and destroyed them entirely. Allah Almighty says: RThey said, “Let us all swear by Allah that we will kill him and his family by night. Then we will tell his heir, ‘We did not witness the murder of his family, and we are indeed truthful.’”Thus they made a plan and We too made a plan, but they were unaware of it.See then what was the consequences of their plan: We destroyed them and their entire peopleS [Surat an-Naml: 49-51] Islam prohibits theft. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “An adulterer is not a believer at the time of committing adultery, a thief is not a believer at the time of committing theft, and a drinker is not a believer at the time of drinking, yet there is an opportunity for repentance.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 6810] Islam prohibits transgression as Allah Almighty says: RAllah enjoins justice, kindness, and giving relatives [their dues], and He forbids shameful acts, evil deeds and oppression. He exhorts you, so that you may take heedS [Surat an-Nahl: 90] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Verily, Allah revealed to me that you must be humble, so that no one oppresses another or boasts of oneself before another.” [Narrated by Abu Dāwūd: 4895] Islam prohibits oppression, as Allah Almighty says: R...And Allah does not like the oppressorsS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 57] And Allah Almighty said: R...Surely the oppressors will not succeedS [Surat al-An‘ām: 21] And Allah Almighty said: R...As for the wrongdoers, He has prepared for them a painful punishmentS [Surat al-Insān: 31] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “There are three kinds of people whose supplication is not rejected: the just ruler, the fasting person until he breaks his fast, and the supplication of the oppressed person whose supplication is raised up above the clouds and the gates of heaven are opened for it and the Almighty Lord says: ‘By My might, I shall surely aid you, even if it should be after a while.’” [Narrated by Muslim briefly in a slightly different wording: 2749; Al-Tirmidhi in a slightly different wording: 2526; and the above wording is narrated by Ahmad: 8043] When the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) dispatched Mu‘ādh to Yemen, he said to him:“Beware of the supplication of an oppressed person; for there is no barrier between it and Allah.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 1496] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Beware, if anyone wrongs a contracted non-Muslim (Mu‘āhid), or diminishes his right, or forces him to work beyond his capacity, or takes from him anything without his consent, I shall be his adversary on the Day of Judgment.” [Sunan Abu Dāwūd: 3052] As you have seen, Islam prohibits every evil trait and oppressive or transgressive treatment.

RDo not turn your face away from people [in contempt], and do not walk on earth in arrogance. Indeed, Allah does not like anyone who is arrogant and boastfulS [Surat Luqmān: 18].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Indeed, among the most beloved and nearest of you to me on the Day of Judgment are those of you who have the best morals, and, indeed, the most hated of you to me and farthest from me on the Day of Judgment are the talkative, the pompous, and the Mutafayhiqūn.” They asked: “O Messenger of Allah, we know the talkative and the pompous, but we do not know who the Mutafayhiqūn are.” He replied: “The arrogant.” [Al-Silsilah al-Sahīhah: 791].

Islam prohibits lying, as Allah Almighty says: R...Indeed, Allah does not guide one who is a transgressor and a liarS [Surat Ghāfir: 28].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Beware of lying, for indeed lying leads to evil doing, and evil doing leads to Hellfire, and a man would continue to lie and be keen on lying until he is recorded in the sight of Allah as a liar.” [Narrated by Muslim: 2607].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Signs of the hypocrite are three: when he speaks, he lies; when he makes a promise, he breaks it; and when he is entrusted with something, he betrays the trust.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 6095].

Islam prohibits cheating:  According to the Hadīth: “The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) happened to pass by a heap of food (corn). He thrust his hand in that (heap) and his fingers were moistened. He said: ‘O owner of the food, What is this?’ He replied: ‘O Messenger of Allah, these have been drenched by rainfall.’ He (the Prophet) remarked: ‘Why did you not place this (the drenched part of the heap) on the top so that people could see it? He who cheats is not of me (is not my follower).’” [Narrated by Muslim: 102].

Islam prohibits treachery, betrayal, and deception. Allah Almighty says: RO you who believe, do not betray Allah and the Messenger, nor betray your trusts knowinglyS [Surat al-Anfāl: 27]. And Allah Almighty said: RThose who fulfill the covenant of Allah and do not break the contractS [Surat ar-Ra‘d: 20].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) used to tell his dispatched armies whenever they started a campaign: “Fight, but do not steal from the spoils of war, do not be treacherous, do not mutilate, and do not kill children.” [Narrated by Muslim: 1731].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Whoever has the following four characteristics will be a sheer hypocrite and whoever has one of the following four characteristics will have one characteristic of hypocrisy unless and until he gives it up: whenever he is entrusted, he betrays, whenever he speaks, he lies, whenever he makes a covenant, he proves treacherous, and whenever he quarrels, he deviates from the truth.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 34].

Islam prohibits envy as Allah Almighty says: ROr do they envy people for what Allah has given them out of His bounty? We gave the descendants of Abraham the Book and wisdom, and We gave them a great authorityS [Surat an-Nisā’: 54]. Allah Almighty also says: RMany of the people of the Book wish they could turn you back to disbelief after you have believed, out of the envy in their hearts, after the truth has become evident to them. But pardon and overlook until Allah passes His decree, for Allah is Most Capable of all thingsS [Surat al-Baqarah: 109].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “The disease of the nations before you is creeping towards you: envy and hatred, it is the Hāliqah (shaver). I do not speak of what shaves the hair, but what shaves the religion. By the One in Whose Hand my soul is, you will not enter Paradise until you believe, and you will not believe until you love one another. Shall I tell you what will strengthen that for you? Spread the greetings of peace among you.” [Narrated by Al-Tirmidhi: 2510].

Islam prohibits evil scheming, as Allah Almighty says: RThus We have placed in every city the most wicked ones to conspire in it, yet they only conspire against themselves, without even realizing itS [Surat al-An‘ām: 123].

Allah Almighty reported that the Jews conspired to murder the Messiah (peace be upon him) but Allah turned their evil scheming against them, for indeed evil scheming harms none but its plotter. Allah Almighty says: RWhen Jesus sensed disbelief from them, he said, “Who are my helpers in the cause of Allah?” The disciples said, “We are helpers of Allah. We believe in Allah; so bear witness that we are Muslims [submitting to Allah].” “Our Lord, we believe in what You have sent down and we follow the messenger; so count us among those who bear witness [to the truth].” And [the disbelievers] devised a plan, but Allah also made a plan, and Allah is the best of planners. And [remember] when Allah said, “O Jesus, I will take you and raise you up to Myself and deliver you from those who disbelieve, and make those who follow you above those who disbelieve until the Day of Resurrection. Then you will all return to Me, and I will judge between you concerning that over which you differed [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 52-55].

In addition, Allah Almighty reported that the people of Prophet Sālih (peace be upon him) wanted to kill him through evil scheming, but Allah returned their scheming against themselves and destroyed them entirely. Allah Almighty says: RThey said, “Let us all swear by Allah that we will kill him and his family by night. Then we will tell his heir, ‘We did not witness the murder of his family, and we are indeed truthful.’” Thus they made a plan and We too made a plan, but they were unaware of it. See then what was the consequences of their plan: We destroyed them and their entire peopleS [Surat an-Naml: 49-51].

Islam prohibits theft. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “An adulterer is not a believer at the time of committing adultery, a thief is not a believer at the time of committing theft, and a drinker is not a believer at the time of drinking, yet there is an opportunity for repentance.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 6810].

Islam prohibits transgression as Allah Almighty says: RAllah enjoins justice, kindness, and giving relatives [their dues], and He forbids shameful acts, evil deeds and oppression. He exhorts you, so that you may take heedS [Surat an-Nahl: 90].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Verily, Allah revealed to me that you must be humble, so that no one oppresses another or boasts of oneself before another.” [Narrated by Abu Dāwūd: 4895].

Islam prohibits oppression, as Allah Almighty says: R...And Allah does not like the oppressorsS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 57]. And Allah Almighty said: R...Surely the oppressors will not succeedS  [Surat al-An‘ām: 21]. And Allah Almighty said: R...As for the wrongdoers, He has prepared for them a painful punishmentS [Surat al-Insān: 31].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “There are three kinds of people whose supplication is not rejected: the just ruler, the fasting person until he breaks his fast, and the supplication of the oppressed person whose supplication is raised up above the clouds and the gates of heaven are opened for it and the Almighty Lord says: ‘By My might, I shall surely aid you, even if it should be after a while.’” [Narrated by Muslim briefly in a slightly different wording: 2749; Al-Tirmidhi in a slightly different wording: 2526; and the above wording is narrated by Ahmad: 8043].

When the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) dispatched Mu‘ādh to Yemen, he said to him: “Beware of the supplication of an oppressed person; for there is no barrier between it and Allah.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 1496].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Beware, if anyone wrongs a contracted non-Muslim (Mu‘āhid), or diminishes his right, or forces him to work beyond his capacity, or takes from him anything without his consent, I shall be his adversary on the Day of Judgment.” [Sunan Abu Dāwūd: 3052].

As you have seen, Islam prohibits every evil trait and oppressive or transgressive treatment.

 36. Islam prohibits financial transactions involving usury, harm, deception, oppression, cheating, or causing catastrophic consequences to societies, peoples, and individuals.

Islam prohibits financial transactions involving usury, harm, deception, oppression, cheating, or causing catastrophic consequences to societies, peoples, and individuals. The supporting verses and Hadīths prohibiting usury, oppression, cheating, and causing mischief on earth are previously mentioned in the beginning of this point. Allah Almighty says: RThose who abuse believing men and women for something they did not commit, they will bear the burden of slander and flagrant sinS [Surat al-Ahzāb: 58] Allah Almighty also says: RWhoever does a righteous deed, it is to his own benefit; and whoever does an evil deed, it is to his own loss. Your Lord is not unjust to His slavesS [Surat Fussilat: 46] In the Sunnah, it is reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) prescribed that there should be neither harm nor a reciprocating harm.[Sunan Abu Dāwūd] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should not harm his neighbor; whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should honor his guest; and whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should speak good or keep silent.” Another narration reads: “let him be kind to his neighbor.” [Narrated by Muslim: 47] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “A woman was punished because of a cat which she had kept locked up until it died, and she was thrown into Hell for that. She neither gave it food or drink when she locked it up, nor freed it so that it would eat from the vermin of the earth.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 3482] The above Hadīth is about someone who harmed a cat; how grave would be the punishment of the one harming people? Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) ascended the pulpit and said loudly: “O you who accepted Islam with your tongue, while faith has not reached your heart, do not harm the Muslims, nor revile them, nor spy on them to expose their secrets. For indeed, whoever tries to expose his Muslim brother’s secrets, Allah exposes his secrets wide open even if he were in the depth of his house.” He (the narrator) said: “One day Ibn ‘Umar looked at the House - or the Ka’bah - and said: ‘How great you are and how sacred you are! The believer is more inviolable in the sight of Allah than you.’” [Narrated by Al-Tirmidhi: 2032; Ibn Hibbān: 5763] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should not harm his neighbor; whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should honor his guest; and whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should speak good or keep silent.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 6018] Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Do you know who is the bankrupt?” They said: “O Messenger of Allah, the bankrupt among us is the one who has neither money nor property.” He said: “Verily, the bankrupt of my Ummah is the one who comes on the Day of Judgment with fasting, prayers, and Zakah, but also with insults, slander, and consuming wealth unlawfully. Each of these (whom he insulted, slandered, and consumed his wealth unlawfully) will be given from his good deeds. If his good deeds run out before justice is fulfilled, then some of their sins will be cast upon him and he will be thrown into Hellfire.” [Narrated by Muslim: 2581; Al-Tirmidhi: 2418; and Ahmad narrated the above wording: 8029] The Messenger of Allah said: “There was a branch of a tree that harmed people. A man removed it, so he was admitted to Paradise.” [Al-Bukhārī narrated its meaning: 652; Muslim: 1914; Ibn Mājah: 3682; and Ahmad: 10432] The above wording is narrated by Ahmad and Ibn Mājah. It is clear how removing any harm from the road will admit its doer to Paradise; so, how about the individual who harms people and ruins their lives?!

The supporting verses and Hadīths prohibiting usury, oppression, cheating, and causing mischief on earth are previously mentioned in the beginning of this point. Allah Almighty says: RThose who abuse believing men and women for something they did not commit, they will bear the burden of slander and flagrant sinS [Surat al-Ahzāb: 58]. Allah Almighty also says: RWhoever does a righteous deed, it is to his own benefit; and whoever does an evil deed, it is to his own loss. Your Lord is not unjust to His slavesS [Surat Fussilat: 46].

In the Sunnah, it is reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) prescribed that there should be neither harm nor a reciprocating harm. [Sunan Abu Dāwūd].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should not harm his neighbor; whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should honor his guest; and whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should speak good or keep silent.” Another narration reads: “let him be kind to his neighbor.” [Narrated by Muslim: 47].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “A woman was punished because of a cat which she had kept locked up until it died, and she was thrown into Hell for that. She neither gave it food or drink when she locked it up, nor freed it so that it would eat from the vermin of the earth.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 3482].

The above Hadīth is about someone who harmed a cat; how grave would be the punishment of the one harming people? Ibn ‘Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) ascended the pulpit and said loudly: “O you who accepted Islam with your tongue, while faith has not reached your heart, do not harm the Muslims, nor revile them, nor spy on them to expose their secrets. For indeed, whoever tries to expose his Muslim brother’s secrets, Allah exposes his secrets wide open even if he were in the depth of his house.” He (the narrator) said: “One day Ibn ‘Umar looked at the House - or the Ka’bah - and said: ‘How great you are and how sacred you are! The believer is more inviolable in the sight of Allah than you.’” [Narrated by Al-Tirmidhi: 2032; Ibn Hibbān: 5763].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should not harm his neighbor; whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should honor his guest; and whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should speak good or keep silent.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 6018].

Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Do you know who is the bankrupt?” They said: “O Messenger of Allah, the bankrupt among us is the one who has neither money nor property.” He said: “Verily, the bankrupt of my Ummah is the one who comes on the Day of Judgment with fasting, prayers, and Zakah, but also with insults, slander, and consuming wealth unlawfully. Each of these (whom he insulted, slandered, and consumed his wealth unlawfully) will be given from his good deeds. If his good deeds run out before justice is fulfilled, then some of their sins will be cast upon him and he will be thrown into Hellfire.” [Narrated by Muslim: 2581; Al-Tirmidhi: 2418; and Ahmad narrated the above wording: 8029].

The Messenger of Allah said: “There was a branch of a tree that harmed people. A man removed it, so he was admitted to Paradise.” [Al-Bukhārī narrated its meaning: 652; Muslim: 1914; Ibn Mājah: 3682; and Ahmad: 10432] The above wording is narrated by Ahmad and Ibn Mājah. It is clear how removing any harm from the road will admit its doer to Paradise; so, how about the individual who harms people and ruins their lives?!

 37. Islam contains teachings to preserve reason and prohibits what damages it such as consuming intoxicants. Islam elevated the status of reason such that it constitutes the backbone of legal competence. It freed reason from the shackles of mythology and idolatry. Islam has no secrets or rulings that are exclusive to a certain class, rather all of its rulings and laws are consistent with sound reason and comply with justice and wisdom.

Islam contains teachings to preserve and elevate the status of reason, as Allah Almighty says: R...Indeed, the hearing, the sight, and the heart; all of them will be called to accountS [Surat al-Isrā’: 36] Therefore, it is obligatory upon the individual to preserve his mind. For this reason, Islam prohibits intoxicants and drugs. As for the prohibition of intoxicants, I have mentioned it in point number (34). There are many Qur’anic verses that end with: R...so that you may understandS [Surat al-Baqarah: 242] Allah Almighty also says: RThe life of this world is nothing but play and amusement, but the Home of the Hereafter is far better for those who fear Allah. Do you not then understand?S [Surat al-An‘ām: 32] Allah Almighty also says: RIndeed, We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur’an so that you may understandS [Surat Yūsuf: 2] Allah Almighty clarified that guidance and wisdom prove fruitful only to people of reason. Allah Almighty says: RHe gives wisdom to whom He wills; and whoever is given wisdom is surely given abundant good, but none will take heed except people of understandingS [Surat al-Baqarah: 269] Accordingly, Islam has hinged legal competence on the possession of reason [i.e. sanity]. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “There are three people who are exempt from being taken to task: the sleeper until he awakes, the minor until he reaches puberty, and the insane until he regains his sanity.” [Al-Bukhāri narrated it in a Mu‘allaq form (suspended passive form) with an emphatic description: 5269; Abu Dāwūd narrated the above wording with a connected chain of transmission: 4402; Al-Tirmidhi: 1423; Al-Nasā’i in Al-Sunan al-Kubra: 7346; Ahmad in a slightly different wording: 956; and Ibn Mājah narrated it briefly: 2042] Islam freed reason from the shackles of mythology and idolatry. Allah Almighty said about the mythologically-driven previous nations and their rejection of the truth brought from Allah: RLikewise, We never sent any warner to a town before you except that its affluent ones said, “We found our forefathers on a path, and we are following their footsteps.”S [Surat az-Zukhruf: 23] Allah Almighty reported the statement of Abraham (peace be upon him) to his nation: R...What are these statues to which you are devoted? They said: “We found our fathers worshiping them.”S [Surat al-Anbiyā’: 52-53] Islam came to order people to relinquish the worship of idols and give up their belief in myths inherited from their forefathers. People must follow instead the path of the messengers (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon them).In Islam there are no secrets or rulings exclusive to a specific class of people.‘Ali ibn Abu Tālib (may Allah be pleased with him), cousin of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) and his son-in-law, was asked whether the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) had showed special favor to them by (disclosing to him) anything (which he kept secret from others). He said: “He did not favor us by anything that he did not made public except that which is in the sheath of this sword of mine.” He took out a scroll on which it was written: “May Allah curse the one who slaughters (a sacrifice) for the sake of other than Allah, may Allah curse the one who steals the landmarks, may Allah curse the one who curses his father, and may Allah curse the one who gives refuge to a heretic innovator.” [Narrated by Muslim: 1978] Notably, all the rulings and laws of Islam are compatible with sound reason and are consistent with the requirements of justice and wisdom.

R...Indeed, the hearing, the sight, and the heart; all of them will be called to accountS [Surat al-Isrā’: 36]. Therefore, it is obligatory upon the individual to preserve his mind. For this reason, Islam prohibits intoxicants and drugs. As for the prohibition of intoxicants, I have mentioned it in point number (34). There are many Qur’anic verses that end with: R...so that you may understandS [Surat al-Baqarah: 242]. Allah Almighty also says: RThe life of this world is nothing but play and amusement, but the Home of the Hereafter is far better for those who fear Allah. Do you not then understand?S [Surat al-An‘ām: 32]. Allah Almighty also says: RIndeed, We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur’an so that you may understandS [Surat Yūsuf: 2].

Allah Almighty clarified that guidance and wisdom prove fruitful only to people of reason. Allah Almighty says: RHe gives wisdom to whom He wills; and whoever is given wisdom is surely given abundant good, but none will take heed except people of understandingS [Surat al-Baqarah: 269].

Accordingly, Islam has hinged legal competence on the possession of reason [i.e. sanity]. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “There are three people who are exempt from being taken to task: the sleeper until he awakes, the minor until he reaches puberty, and the insane until he regains his sanity.” [Al-Bukhāri narrated it in a Mu‘allaq form (suspended passive form) with an emphatic description: 5269; Abu Dāwūd narrated the above wording with a connected chain of transmission: 4402; Al-Tirmidhi: 1423; Al-Nasā’i in Al-Sunan al-Kubra: 7346; Ahmad in a slightly different wording: 956; and Ibn Mājah narrated it briefly: 2042].

Islam freed reason from the shackles of mythology and idolatry. Allah Almighty said about the mythologically-driven previous nations and their rejection of the truth brought from Allah: RLikewise, We never sent any warner to a town before you except that its affluent ones said, “We found our forefathers on a path, and we are following their footsteps.”S [Surat az-Zukhruf: 23].

Allah Almighty reported the statement of Abraham (peace be upon him) to his nation: R...What are these statues to which you are devoted? They said: “We found our fathers worshiping them.”S [Surat al-Anbiyā’: 52-53].

Islam came to order people to relinquish the worship of idols and give up their belief in myths inherited from their forefathers. People must follow instead the path of the messengers (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon them).

In Islam there are no secrets or rulings exclusive to a specific class of people.

‘Ali ibn Abu Tālib (may Allah be pleased with him), cousin of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) and his son-in-law, was asked whether the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) had showed special favor to them by (disclosing to him) anything (which he kept secret from others). He said: “He did not favor us by anything that he did not made public except that which is in the sheath of this sword of mine.” He took out a scroll on which it was written: “May Allah curse the one who slaughters (a sacrifice) for the sake of other than Allah, may Allah curse the one who steals the landmarks, may Allah curse the one who curses his father, and may Allah curse the one who gives refuge to a heretic innovator.” [Narrated by Muslim: 1978].

Notably, all the rulings and laws of Islam are compatible with sound reason and are consistent with the requirements of justice and wisdom.

 38. As the followers of false religions failed to recognize the contradictions and irrational issues therein, the clergy would successfully convince them that religion is above reason as the latter has no role in understanding the religion. Islam, on the other hand, considers religion a light showing reason its path. False religions wish that man would relinquish reason to be their obedient follower, whereas Islam fosters reason so that the individual recognizes the true nature of everything around him.

If the followers of false religions failed to recognize the contradictions and irrational issues therein, the clergy would successfully convince them that religion is above reason as the latter has no role in understanding the religion. Islam, on the other hand, considers religion a light showing reason its path. False religions wish that man would relinquish reason to be their obedient follower, whereas Islam fosters reason so that the individual recognizes the true nature of everything around him. Allah Almighty says: RLikewise We have revealed to you a revelation by Our command. You knew nothing of the Scripture or matters of faith, but We have made it [the Qur’an] a light by which We guide whom We will of Our slaves. And you are truly leading people to a straight pathS [Surat ash-Shūra: 52] The divine revelation contains proofs and arguments convincing enough to guide sound reason to the truth it has been aspiring to learn and believe in. Allah Almighty says: RO mankind, there has come to you a conclusive proof from your Lord, and We have sent down to you a clear lightS [Surat an-Nisā’: 174] Allah Almighty wants for the human being to live in the light of guidance, knowledge, and truth. On the other hand, the devils and tyrants wish for him to live in the darkness of disbelief, ignorance, and deviance. Allah Almighty says: RAllah is the Protector of those who believe; He brings them out of the depths of darkness into the light. As for those who disbelieve, their protectors are false gods; they bring them out from the light into the depths of darkness...S [Surat al-Baqarah: 257].

RLikewise We have revealed to you a revelation by Our command. You knew nothing of the Scripture or matters of faith, but We have made it [the Qur’an] a light by which We guide whom We will of Our slaves. And you are truly leading people to a straight pathS  [Surat ash-Shūra: 52].

The divine revelation contains proofs and arguments convincing enough to guide sound reason to the truth it has been aspiring to learn and believe in. Allah Almighty says: RO mankind, there has come to you a conclusive proof from your Lord, and We have sent down to you a clear lightS  [Surat an-Nisā’: 174].

Allah Almighty wants for the human being to live in the light of guidance, knowledge, and truth. On the other hand, the devils and tyrants wish for him to live in the darkness of disbelief, ignorance, and deviance. Allah Almighty says: RAllah is the Protector of those who believe; He brings them out of the depths of darkness into the light. As for those who disbelieve, their protectors are false gods; they bring them out from the light into the depths of darkness...S [Surat al-Baqarah: 257].

 39. Islam reveres sound knowledge, encourages impartial scientific research, and advocates pondering deliberately on ourselves and on the universe around us. The sound scientific results are consistent with the teachings of Islam.

Islam reveres sound knowledge, as Allah Almighty says: R...Allah will raise in ranks those who believed from among you and those who are given knowledge. And Allah is All-Aware of what you doS [Surat al-Mujādilah: 11] Allah lined up the testimony of scholars on par with His own testimony and that of the angels, all of whom testify to the greatest existing fact. Allah Almighty says: RAllah testifies that none has the right to be worshiped except Him, as do the angels and people of knowledge; He is the Upholder of justice. None has the right to be worshiped except Him, the All-Mighty, the All-WiseS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 18] This reflects the high status of scholars in Islam. Allah only ordered His Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) to ask for increase in knowledge, as in His Almighty saying: R...And say: “My Lord, increase me in knowledge.”S [Surat Taha: 114] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Whoever treads a path in pursuit of knowledge, Allah will facilitate for him a path to Paradise. Indeed, the angels lower their wings for the seeker of knowledge out of pleasure with what he does. Verily, the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth, even the fish in the water, ask forgiveness from Allah for the knowledge seeker. The superiority of a scholar over a devout worshiper is like the superiority of the moon over the rest of the planets. Indeed, the scholars are the inheritors of the prophets, who bequeath neither a dinar nor a dirham, but knowledge. So whoever acquires it has actually acquired abundant good.” [Narrated by Abu Dāwūd: 3641; Al-Tirmidhi: 2682; Ibn Mājah narrated the above wording: 223; and Ahmad: 21715] Islam does encourage impartial scientific research. It also calls for deliberate reflection on our own selves and the universe around us. Allah Almighty says: RWe will show them Our signs in the universe and in their own selves, until it becomes clear to them that this [Qur’an] is the truth. Is it not enough that your Lord is a Witness over all things?S [Surat Fussilat: 53] He also says: RHave they not observed the dominions of the heavens and earth and all that Allah has created, and that the end of their term might be near? In what message after this [Qur’an] will they then believe?S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 185] Allah Almighty also says: RHave they not traveled through the land to see how was the end of those who came before them? They were more powerful than them, and they tilled the land and built it more than these people have ever built. Their messengers came to them with clear proofs. It was not Allah Who wronged them, but it was they who wronged themselvesS [Surat ar-Rūm: 9] Sound scientific results are not expected to conflict with Islam. For example, the Qur’an provided accurate details on certain issues one thousand four hundred years ago, although modern science only recently arrived at conclusions concerning those details. The scientific results were in agreement with the Qur’an such as the creation of a fetus in the womb of its mother. Allah Almighty says: RWe created man from an extract of clay, then We placed him as a sperm-drop in a safe place, then We made the sperm-drop into a clinging clot, then We made the clinging clot into a lump, then We made the lump into bones, and We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We developed it into another creation. So Blessed is Allah, the Best of CreatorsS [Surat al-Mu’minūn: 12-14].

R...Allah will raise in ranks those who believed from among you and those who are given knowledge. And Allah is All-Aware of what you doS [Surat al-Mujādilah: 11].

Allah lined up the testimony of scholars on par with His own testimony and that of the angels, all of whom testify to the greatest existing fact. Allah Almighty says: RAllah testifies that none has the right to be worshiped except Him, as do the angels and people of knowledge; He is the Upholder of justice. None has the right to be worshiped except Him, the All-Mighty, the All-WiseS [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 18].

This reflects the high status of scholars in Islam. Allah only ordered His Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) to ask for increase in knowledge, as in His Almighty saying: R...And say: “My Lord, increase me in knowledge.”S [Surat Taha: 114].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said:

“Whoever treads a path in pursuit of knowledge, Allah will facilitate for him a path to Paradise. Indeed, the angels lower their wings for the seeker of knowledge out of pleasure with what he does. Verily, the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth, even the fish in the water, ask forgiveness from Allah for the knowledge seeker. The superiority of a scholar over a devout worshiper is like the superiority of the moon over the rest of the planets. Indeed, the scholars are the inheritors of the prophets, who bequeath neither a dinar nor a dirham, but knowledge. So whoever acquires it has actually acquired abundant good.” [Narrated by Abu Dāwūd: 3641; Al-Tirmidhi: 2682; Ibn Mājah narrated the above wording: 223; and Ahmad: 21715].

Islam does encourage impartial scientific research. It also calls for deliberate reflection on our own selves and the universe around us. Allah Almighty says: RWe will show them Our signs in the universe and in their own selves, until it becomes clear to them that this [Qur’an] is the truth. Is it not enough that your Lord is a Witness over all things?S [Surat Fussilat: 53].

He also says: RHave they not observed the dominions of the heavens and earth and all that Allah has created, and that the end of their term might be near? In what message after this [Qur’an] will they then believe?S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 185]. Allah Almighty also says: RHave they not traveled through the land to see how was the end of those who came before them? They were more powerful than them, and they tilled the land and built it more than these people have ever built. Their messengers came to them with clear proofs. It was not Allah Who wronged them, but it was they who wronged themselvesS [Surat ar-Rūm: 9].

Sound scientific results are not expected to conflict with Islam. For example, the Qur’an provided accurate details on certain issues one thousand four hundred years ago, although modern science only recently arrived at conclusions concerning those details. The scientific results were in agreement with the Qur’an such as the creation of a fetus in the womb of its mother. Allah Almighty says: RWe created man from an extract of clay, then We placed him as a sperm-drop in a safe place, then We made the sperm-drop into a clinging clot, then We made the clinging clot into a lump, then We made the lump into bones, and We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We developed it into another creation. So Blessed is Allah, the Best of CreatorsS [Surat al-Mu’minūn: 12-14].

 40. Allah only accepts and rewards the deeds, in the Hereafter, of those who believe in Him, obey Him, and believe in His messengers (peace be upon them). Allah does not accept the acts of worship except the ones He legislated. So, how could one hope to secure the reward of Allah while disbelieving in Him? Allah does not accept the faith of anyone except those who believe in all prophets (peace be upon them) and in the message of Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him).

Allah only accepts and rewards the deeds, in the Hereafter, of those who believe in Him, obey Him, and believe in His messengers (peace be upon them). Allah Almighty says: RWhoever desires this fleeting life, We hasten therein whatever We will to whoever We please. Then We prepare for him Hell, which he will enter, despised and rejected.But whoever desires the Hereafter and strives for it as he should, being a believer – it is those whose efforts will be appreciatedS [Surat al-Isrā’: 18-19] Allah Almighty also says: RWhoever does righteous deeds while he is a believer, his efforts will not be denied, for We are recording them allS [Surat al-Anbiyā’: 94] The only acts of worship Allah accepts are the ones He legislated, as Allah Almighty says: R...So whoever hopes for the meeting with his Lord, let him do righteous deeds and associate none in the worship of his Lord.”S [Surat al-Kahf: 110] It is clear that a deed cannot be righteous unless it is legislated by Allah and one offers it with full sincerity to Allah while believing in Allah and His prophets and messengers (peace be upon them). In contrast, deeds that violate this description will find the destiny Allah Almighty designated in the following verse: RWe will turn to whatever deeds they did and turn them into scattered dustS [Surat al-Furqān: 23] Allah Almighty also says: ROn that Day, some faces will be humiliated,toiling and weary,as they burn in a scorching FireS [Surat al-Ghāshiyah: 2-4] Those people are humbled and exhausted from labor though, unfortunately, will enter Hellfire because their deeds veered off Allah’s guidance. Their deeds were not only unauthorized by Allah, but they also performed false acts of worship and followed the heads of misguidance who invented for them false religions. In short, the only righteous deed accepted by Allah is what is in compliance with what the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) brought. It is inconceivable that one disbelieves in Allah yet hopes for His reward.Moreover, Allah does not accept the faith of anyone unless he believes in all the prophets (peace be upon them) and the message of Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him). Some proofs of this fact have already been discussed in point number (20). Allah Almighty says: RThe Messenger believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, as do the believers. All of them believe in Allah, His angels, His Books, and His messengers, [saying], “We make no distinction between any of His messengers.” And they say, “We hear and obey. Grant us Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the [final] destination.”S [Surat al-Baqarah: 285] Allah Almighty also says: RO you who believe, believe in Allah, His Messenger, the Book which He has sent down to His Messenger, and the Books which He sent down before. Whoever disbelieves in Allah, His angels, His Books, His messengers, and the Last Day has indeed gone far astrayS [Surat an-Nisā’: 136] Allah Almighty also says: RAnd [remember] when Allah took the covenant of the prophets, [saying], “After I have given you the Book and wisdom, if there comes to you a messenger confirming what is with you, then you must believe in him and support him.” Allah said, “Do you affirm this covenant and accept this commitment?” They said, “Yes, we do.” He said, “Then bear witness and I am with you among the witnesses.”[Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 81].

RWhoever desires this fleeting life, We hasten therein whatever We will to whoever We please. Then We prepare for him Hell, which he will enter, despised and rejected. But whoever desires the Hereafter and strives for it as he should, being a believer – it is those whose efforts will be appreciatedS [Surat al-Isrā’: 18-19]. Allah Almighty also says: RWhoever does righteous deeds while he is a believer, his efforts will not be denied, for We are recording them allS [Surat al-Anbiyā’: 94].

The only acts of worship Allah accepts are the ones He legislated, as Allah Almighty says: R...So whoever hopes for the meeting with his Lord, let him do righteous deeds and associate none in the worship of his Lord.”S [Surat al-Kahf: 110].

It is clear that a deed cannot be righteous unless it is legislated by Allah and one offers it with full sincerity to Allah while believing in Allah and His prophets and messengers (peace be upon them). In contrast, deeds that violate this description will find the destiny Allah Almighty designated in the following verse: RWe will turn to whatever deeds they did and turn them into scattered dustS [Surat al-Furqān: 23]. Allah Almighty also says: ROn that Day, some faces will be humiliated, toiling and weary, as they burn in a scorching FireS [Surat al-Ghāshiyah: 2-4].

Those people are humbled and exhausted from labor though, unfortunately, will enter Hellfire because their deeds veered off Allah’s guidance. Their deeds were not only unauthorized by Allah, but they also performed false acts of worship and followed the heads of misguidance who invented for them false religions. In short, the only righteous deed accepted by Allah is what is in compliance with what the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) brought. It is inconceivable that one disbelieves in Allah yet hopes for His reward.

Moreover, Allah does not accept the faith of anyone unless he believes in all the prophets (peace be upon them) and the message of Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him). Some proofs of this fact have already been discussed in point number (20).

Allah Almighty says: RThe Messenger believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, as do the believers. All of them believe in Allah, His angels, His Books, and His messengers, [saying], “We make no distinction between any of His messengers.” And they say, “We hear and obey. Grant us Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the [final] destination.”S [Surat al-Baqarah: 285].

Allah Almighty also says: RO you who believe, believe in Allah, His Messenger, the Book which He has sent down to His Messenger, and the Books which He sent down before. Whoever disbelieves in Allah, His angels, His Books, His messengers, and the Last Day has indeed gone far astrayS [Surat an-Nisā’: 136].

Allah Almighty also says: RAnd [remember] when Allah took the covenant of the prophets, [saying], “After I have given you the Book and wisdom, if there comes to you a messenger confirming what is with you, then you must believe in him and support him.” Allah said, “Do you affirm this covenant and accept this commitment?” They said, “Yes, we do.” He said, “Then bear witness and I am with you among the witnesses.”S [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 81].

 41. The ultimate goal of all the divine messages is to elevate the human being to the level of a sincere servant of Allah, Lord of the worlds, and to free him from servitude to humans, materialism, or mythology. As you can see, Islam does not sanctify people nor does it elevate them beyond their status nor does it take them as deities.

The ultimate goal of all the divine messages is to elevate the human being to the level of a sincere servant of Allah, Lord of the worlds, and to free him from servitude to humans, materialism, or mythology. The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Miserable is the worshiper of the dinar and dirham, and the worshiper of the striped silk cloak. If he is given anything, he is satisfied; but if he is not given, he is unsatisfied.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 6435] A sound person would not submit himself except to Allah; neither wealth, prestige, high position, nor a tribe can enslave him. Consider the following story to realize the condition of people before and after the message of Islam.When the early Muslims migrated to Abyssinia and the king there, Al-Najāshi, asked them: “What is that religion that made you leave your people while rejecting to embrace my religion or any of the religions of these nations?” Ja‘far ibn Abu Tālib answered saying: “O king, we were plunged in the depth of ignorance. We worshiped idols, we ate dead animals, we committed immoralities, we severed kinship ties, and we were evil neighbors. The powerful of us oppressed the weak. We remained in such a condition until Allah raised among us a man of whose birth, truthfulness, honesty, and chastity we are well-aware. He called us to believe in the oneness of Allah and to worship Him alone, and to relinquish what we and our forefathers used to worship other than Allah of the idols and stones. He enjoined us to speak the truth, to fulfill the trust, to maintain kinship ties, and to be kind to neighbors. He prevented us from indulging in the prohibitions, from killing, from immoralities, from false testimony, from unlawfully consuming the property of the orphan, and from slandering chaste women. He ordered us to worship Allah alone without associating anything with Him, to offer prayers, to pay Zakah, and to observe fasting.” He then enumerated the teachings of Islam and added: “We believed and followed him; so, we now worship Allah alone without associating partners with Him. We consider unlawful what he made unlawful for us and consider lawful what he made lawful for us...” [Ahmad narrated it in a slightly different wording: 1740; Abu Nu‘aym narrated a brief version in Hilyat al-Awliyā’: 1/115] As you can obviously note, Islam does not sanctify human beings nor does it elevate them beyond their due status, nor does it make them gods and deities.Allah Almighty says: RSay, “O people of the Book, come to a common term between us and you, that we worship none but Allah and associate no partners with Him, and that we do not take one another as lords besides Allah.” But if they turn away, say, “Bear witness that we are Muslims [submitting to Allah].”S [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 64] Allah Almighty also says: RNor would he order you to take angels and prophets as lords. Would he order you to disbelieve after you have submitted to Allah [as Muslims]?S [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 80] The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Do not exaggerate in praising me as the Christians exaggerated in praising the son of Mary, for I am only His slave. So, call me the slave of Allah and His messenger.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 3445].

“Miserable is the worshiper of the dinar and dirham, and the worshiper of the striped silk cloak. If he is given anything, he is satisfied; but if he is not given, he is unsatisfied.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 6435].

A sound person would not submit himself except to Allah; neither wealth, prestige, high position, nor a tribe can enslave him. Consider the following story to realize the condition of people before and after the message of Islam.

When the early Muslims migrated to Abyssinia and the king there, Al-Najāshi, asked them: “What is that religion that made you leave your people while rejecting to embrace my religion or any of the religions of these nations?”

Ja‘far ibn Abu Tālib answered saying: “O king, we were plunged in the depth of ignorance. We worshiped idols, we ate dead animals, we committed immoralities, we severed kinship ties, and we were evil neighbors. The powerful of us oppressed the weak. We remained in such a condition until Allah raised among us a man of whose birth, truthfulness, honesty, and chastity we are well-aware. He called us to believe in the oneness of Allah and to worship Him alone, and to relinquish what we and our forefathers used to worship other than Allah of the idols and stones. He enjoined us to speak the truth, to fulfill the trust, to maintain kinship ties, and to be kind to neighbors. He prevented us from indulging in the prohibitions, from killing, from immoralities, from false testimony, from unlawfully consuming the property of the orphan, and from slandering chaste women. He ordered us to worship Allah alone without associating anything with Him, to offer prayers, to pay Zakah, and to observe fasting.” He then enumerated the teachings of Islam and added: “We believed and followed him; so, we now worship Allah alone without associating partners with Him. We consider unlawful what he made unlawful for us and consider lawful what he made lawful for us...” [Ahmad narrated it in a slightly different wording: 1740; Abu Nu‘aym narrated a brief version in Hilyat al-Awliyā’: 1/115].

As you can obviously note, Islam does not sanctify human beings nor does it elevate them beyond their due status, nor does it make them gods and deities.

Allah Almighty says: RSay, “O people of the Book, come to a common term between us and you, that we worship none but Allah and associate no partners with Him, and that we do not take one another as lords besides Allah.” But if they turn away, say, “Bear witness that we are Muslims [submitting to Allah].”S [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 64]. Allah Almighty also says: RNor would he order you to take angels and prophets as lords. Would he order you to disbelieve after you have submitted to Allah [as Muslims]?S [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 80].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Do not exaggerate in praising me as the Christians exaggerated in praising the son of Mary, for I am only His slave. So, call me the slave of Allah and His messenger.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhāri: 3445].

 42. Allah legislated repentance in Islam. It is when the individual turns to his Lord and abandons his sin. Just as Islam erases whatever sins existed prior to embracing it, so does repentance. So, it is pointless to admit one’s sins before any human being.

Allah legislated repentance in Islam. It is when the individual turns to his Lord and abandons his sin. Allah Almighty says: R...And turn to Allah in repentance, all of you, O believers,so that you may succeedS [Surat an-Nūr: 31] Allah Almighty also says: RDo they not know that it is Allah Who accepts repentance from His servants and receives charities and that it is Allah Who is the Accepting of repentance, the Most Merciful?S [Surat at-Tawbah: 104] Allah Almighty also says: RAnd it is He Who accepts repentance from His servants and pardons misdeeds, and He knows what you doS [Surat ash-Shūrā: 25].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Indeed, Allah is more pleased with the repentance of His believing servant than a person who loses his mount, carrying his food and drink, in a desert. He sleeps and then gets up and goes in search for it until he is stricken with thirst. Then, he says to himself: ‘I will go back to the place where I have been and sleep there till I die.’ He places his head upon his forearm waiting for death. And when he gets up, lo! There is before him his mount with his provision of food and drink on it. So, Allah is more pleased with the repentance of His believing servant than this man is pleased with his mount and provision.” [Narrated by Muslim: 2744] Just as Islam erases whatever sins existed prior to embracing it, so does repentance. So, it is pointless to admit one’s sins before any human being. Allah Almighty says: RSay to those who disbelieve that if they desist, their past will be forgiven, but if they persist, then they have a precedent in those who have passed before themS [Surat al-Anfāl: 38] Allah also invited the Christians to repent, as Allah Almighty says: RSo will they not repent to Allah and seek His forgiveness? And Allah is All-Forgiving, Most MercifulS [Surat al-Mā’idah: 74] Broadly, Allah invited all sinners to repent, as He Almighty says: RSay [Allah says], “O My slaves who have transgressed against themselves, do not despair of Allah’s mercy, for indeed Allah forgives all sins. He is indeed the All-Forgiving, the Most MercifulS [Surat az-Zumar: 53] Interestingly, when ‘Amr ibn al-‘Ās intended to embrace Islam, he was afraid his past sins would not be forgiven. He narrated this situation saying: “When Allah Almighty instilled the love of Islam in my heart, I came to the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) to pledge allegiance to him. He stretched out his hand to me so I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, I would not pledge allegiance to you unless you forgive my past sins.’ He (the Prophet) said: ‘O ‘Amr, are you not aware of the fact that migration wipes out all the previous sins? O ‘Amr, are you not aware that Islam wipes out all the previous sins.’” [The long version is narrated by Muslim: 121 and the above wording is narrated by Ahmad: 17827].

R...And turn to Allah in repentance, all of you, O believers,so that you may succeedS   [Surat an-Nūr: 31]. Allah Almighty also says: RDo they not know that it is Allah Who accepts repentance from His servants and receives charities and that it is Allah Who is the Accepting of repentance, the Most Merciful?S  [Surat at-Tawbah: 104]. Allah Almighty also says: RAnd it is He Who accepts repentance from His servants and pardons misdeeds, and He knows what you doS [Surat ash-Shūrā: 25].

The Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Indeed, Allah is more pleased with the repentance of His believing servant than a person who loses his mount, carrying his food and drink, in a desert. He sleeps and then gets up and goes in search for it until he is stricken with thirst. Then, he says to himself: ‘I will go back to the place where I have been and sleep there till I die.’ He places his head upon his forearm waiting for death. And when he gets up, lo! There is before him his mount with his provision of food and drink on it. So, Allah is more pleased with the repentance of His believing servant than this man is pleased with his mount and provision.” [Narrated by Muslim: 2744].

Just as Islam erases whatever sins existed prior to embracing it, so does repentance. So, it is pointless to admit one’s sins before any human being. Allah Almighty says: RSay to those who disbelieve that if they desist, their past will be forgiven, but if they persist, then they have a precedent in those who have passed before themS [Surat al-Anfāl: 38].

Allah also invited the Christians to repent, as Allah Almighty says: RSo will they not repent to Allah and seek His forgiveness? And Allah is All-Forgiving, Most MercifulS [Surat al-Mā’idah: 74].

Broadly, Allah invited all sinners to repent, as He Almighty says: RSay [Allah says], “O My slaves who have transgressed against themselves, do not despair of Allah’s mercy, for indeed Allah forgives all sins. He is indeed the All-Forgiving, the Most MercifulS  [Surat az-Zumar: 53].

Interestingly, when ‘Amr ibn al-‘Ās intended to embrace Islam, he was afraid his past sins would not be forgiven. He narrated this situation saying: “When Allah Almighty instilled the love of Islam in my heart, I came to the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) to pledge allegiance to him. He stretched out his hand to me so I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, I would not pledge allegiance to you unless you forgive my past sins.’ He (the Prophet) said: ‘O ‘Amr, are you not aware of the fact that migration wipes out all the previous sins? O ‘Amr, are you not aware that Islam wipes out all the previous sins.’” [The long version is narrated by Muslim: 121 and the above wording is narrated by Ahmad: 17827].

 43. In Islam, the relationship between the individual and Allah is direct and needless of any intermediaries. Islam prohibits taking humans as gods or associates with Allah in His Lordship or in His right of worship.

In Islam, there is no need to admit one’s sins before any human being because the relationship between the individual and Allah is direct without the need for an intermediary. As already mentioned in point number (36), Allah Almighty invites all people to repent and return to Him. Allah Almighty also forbade taking prophets or angels as intermediaries between Him and His servants. Allah Almighty says: RNor would he order you to take angels and prophets as lords. Would he order you to disbelieve after you have submitted to Allah [as Muslims]?S [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 80] Islam, as you see, prohibits taking humans as deities or associating them as partners with Allah in His Lordship or in His right of worship. Allah Almighty says about the Christians: RThey have taken their rabbis and monks as lords besides Allah, as well as the Messiah, son of Mary, even though they were commanded to worship only One God; none has the right to be worshiped except Him, glorified is He far above what they associate with HimS [Surat at-Tawbah: 31] Allah condemned the disbelievers’ act of taking intermediaries to reach Him. Allah Almighty says: RIndeed, sincere devotion is due to Allah alone. As for those who take others as guardians besides Him, [saying], “We only worship them so that they may bring us closer to Allah.” Allah will judge between them concerning that over which they differ. Allah does not guide anyone who is a liar and persistent disbelieverS [Surat az-Zumar: 3] Allah clarified that the idolaters of the pre-Islamic era used to take intermediaries between them and Allah while claiming that they bring them closer to Allah.Since Allah forbade taking the prophets or the angels as intermediaries between Him and His servants, it obviously indicates that others are excluded as well even though the prophets and messengers (peace be upon them) are known for their hastening to get closer to Allah. Allah Almighty informed us of the state of the prophets and messengers (peace be upon them) saying: R...They used to hasten in doing good deeds and used to call upon Us with hope and fear, and they were humble before UsS [Surat al-Anbiyā’: 90] He also says: RThose whom they call upon seek means of nearness to their Lord, each trying to become closer, hoping for His Mercy and fearing His punishment. Indeed, the punishment of your Lord is fearsomeS [Surat al-Isrā’: 57] In other words, those (i.e. prophets and righteous people) whom you call upon besides Allah seek closeness to Him, hope for His mercy, and fear His punishment; so, how is it conceivable to seek their help rather than Allah? RNor would he order you to take angels and prophets as lords. Would he order you to disbelieve after you have submitted to Allah [as Muslims]?S [Surat Āl ‘Imrān: 80].

Islam, as you see, prohibits taking humans as deities or associating them as partners with Allah in His Lordship or in His right of worship. Allah Almighty says about the Christians: RThey have taken their rabbis and monks as lords besides Allah, as well as the Messiah, son of Mary, even though they were commanded to worship only One God; none has the right to be worshiped except Him, glorified is He far above what they associate with HimS  [Surat at-Tawbah: 31].

Allah condemned the disbelievers’ act of taking intermediaries to reach Him. Allah Almighty says: RIndeed, sincere devotion is due to Allah alone. As for those who take others as guardians besides Him, [saying], “We only worship them so that they may bring us closer to Allah.” Allah will judge between them concerning that over which they differ. Allah does not guide anyone who is a liar and persistent disbelieverS  [Surat az-Zumar: 3].

Allah clarified that the idolaters of the pre-Islamic era used to take intermediaries between them and Allah while claiming that they bring them closer to Allah.

Since Allah forbade taking the prophets or the angels as intermediaries between Him and His servants, it obviously indicates that others are excluded as well even though the prophets and messengers (peace be upon them) are known for their hastening to get closer to Allah. Allah Almighty informed us of the state of the prophets and messengers (peace be upon them) saying: R...They used to hasten in doing good deeds and used to call upon Us with hope and fear, and they were humble before UsS  [Surat al-Anbiyā’: 90].

He also says: RThose whom they call upon seek means of nearness to their Lord, each trying to become closer, hoping for His Mercy and fearing His punishment. Indeed, the punishment of your Lord is fearsomeS [Surat al-Isrā’: 57].

In other words, those (i.e. prophets and righteous people) whom you call upon besides Allah seek closeness to Him, hope for His mercy, and fear His punishment; so, how is it conceivable to seek their help rather than Allah?

 44. In conclusion, we should remember that people, and the human society in general, given their different times, national allegiances, and countries, are different in their ideologies, goals, environments, and actions. Hence, they needed a guide to lead them, a system to unify them, and a ruler to protect them. The honorable messengers (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon them) undertook those duties by a revelation from Allah Almighty. They guided people to the path of good and guidance, united them on the Shariah of Allah, and judged with the truth among them. The conditions of people would be reformed depending on the extent of their response to the guidance of those messengers and the proximity of their time to the era of the divine messages. Allah sealed the divine messages with that of Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) and destined it for eternity. Allah has made it a guidance, mercy, and light for all people to guide them to Him.

In conclusion, we should remember that people, and the human society in general, given their different times, national allegiances, and countries, are different in their ideologies, goals, environments, and actions. Hence, they needed a guide to lead them, a system to unify them, and a ruler to protect them. The honorable messengers (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon them) undertook those duties by a revelation from Allah Almighty. They guided people to the path of good and guidance, united them on the Shariah of Allah, and judged with the truth among them. The conditions of people would be reformed depending on the extent of their response to the guidance of those messengers and the proximity of their time to the era of the divine messages. After deviance and ignorance prevailed alongside the worship of idols, Allah sent His Prophet Muhammad (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) with guidance and the religion of truth to bring people out of the darkness of disbelief, ignorance, and idolatry to faith and guidance.

 45. Therefore, I call you, O human, to believe in Allah truthfully without the influence of tradition and customs. You must know that you will return to your Lord after your death. You should ponder on your own self and on the horizons around you. Embrace Islam and you shall secure happiness in this worldly life and the Hereafter. If you desire to embrace Islam, all you have to do is to testify that there is no god worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. You must dissociate yourself from anything worshiped besides Allah and you must believe that Allah is the One to resurrect those who are in the graves. Also, you must believe that reckoning and the recompense are true. Once you utter this testimony, you become a Muslim. The next step is to worship Allah in the manner He prescribed by observing prayer, paying Zakah, fasting, and performing Hajj if you are capable financially and physically.

Therefore, I call upon you, O human, to believe in Allah truthfully without the influence of tradition and customs as Allah Almighty invites you in His saying: RSay [O Prophet], “I only advise you to do one thing: stand up for Allah, in pairs and individually, then reflect. There is no madness in your companion; he is but a warner to you ahead of a severe punishment.”S [Surat Saba’: 46] You must know that you will return to your Lord after your death; Allah Almighty says: Rand that man will not receive except what he strives for, and that his efforts will be examined,then he will be recompensed in full,and that to your Lord is the final returnS [Surat an-Najm: 39-42] You should ponder on your own self and on the horizons around you. Allah Almighty says: RHave they not observed the dominions of the heavens and earth and all that Allah has created, and that the end of their term might be near? In what message after this [Qur’an] will they then believe?S [Surat al-A‘rāf: 185] Embrace Islam and you shall secure happiness in this world and in the Hereafter. If you desire to embrace Islam, all you have to do is testify that there is no god worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.When the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) dispatched Mu’ādh to Yemen, he said to him: “You will come to people from the People of the Book. Call them to the testimony that there is no god worthy of worship but Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah. If they obey you, tell them that Allah Almighty made obligatory on them five prayers every day and night. If they obey you, tell them that Allah made obligatory on them Zakah to be taken from the rich among them and given back to the poor among them. If they obey you, do not ever approach their precious properties.” [Narrated by Muslim: 19] You must dissociate yourself from anything worshiped besides Allah, which is the purest religion [Hanīfiyyah] of Abraham (peace be upon him). Allah Almighty says: RIndeed, you have a good example in Abraham and those with him, when they said to their people, “We dissociate ourselves from you and whatever you worship besides Allah. We renounce you, and the enmity and hatred have arisen between us and you forever until you believe in Allah alone”...S [Surat al-Mumtahanah: 4] You must believe that Allah is the One Who will resurrect people from their graves, as Allah Almighty says: RThat is because Allah is the Truth; He alone gives life to the dead, and He is Most Capable of all things.The Hour is certainly coming; there is no doubt about it, and Allah will surely resurrect those who are in the gravesS [Surat al-Hajj: 6-7] Also, you must believe that reckoning and recompense are true, as Allah Almighty says: RAllah created the heavens and earth for a true purpose, and so that every soul may be recompensed for what it has earned, and they will not be wrongedS [Surat al-Jāthiyah: 22].

RSay [O Prophet], “I only advise you to do one thing: stand up for Allah, in pairs and individually, then reflect. There is no madness in your companion; he is but a warner to you ahead of a severe punishment.”S [Surat Saba’: 46].

You must know that you will return to your Lord after your death; Allah Almighty says: Rand that man will not receive except what he strives for, and that his efforts will be examined, then he will be recompensed in full, and that to your Lord is the final returnS  [Surat an-Najm: 39-42].

You should ponder on your own self and on the horizons around you. Allah Almighty says: RHave they not observed the dominions of the heavens and earth and all that Allah has created, and that the end of their term might be near? In what message after this [Qur’an] will they then believe?S  [Surat al-A‘rāf: 185].

Embrace Islam and you shall secure happiness in this world and in the Hereafter. If you desire to embrace Islam, all you have to do is testify that there is no god worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.

When the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) dispatched Mu’ādh to Yemen, he said to him: “You will come to people from the People of the Book. Call them to the testimony that there is no god worthy of worship but Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah. If they obey you, tell them that Allah Almighty made obligatory on them five prayers every day and night. If they obey you, tell them that Allah made obligatory on them Zakah to be taken from the rich among them and given back to the poor among them. If they obey you, do not ever approach their precious properties.” [Narrated by Muslim: 19].

You must dissociate yourself from anything worshiped besides Allah, which is the purest religion [Hanīfiyyah] of Abraham (peace be upon him). Allah Almighty says: RIndeed, you have a good example in Abraham and those with him, when they said to their people, “We dissociate ourselves from you and whatever you worship besides Allah. We renounce you, and the enmity and hatred have arisen between us and you forever until you believe in Allah alone”...S  [Surat al-Mumtahanah: 4].

You must believe that Allah is the One Who will resurrect people from their graves, as Allah Almighty says: RThat is because Allah is the Truth; He alone gives life to the dead, and He is Most Capable of all things. The Hour is certainly coming; there is no doubt about it, and Allah will surely resurrect those who are in the gravesS  [Surat al-Hajj: 6-7].

Also, you must believe that reckoning and recompense are true, as Allah Almighty says: RAllah created the heavens and earth for a true purpose, and so that every soul may be recompensed for what it has earned, and they will not be wrongedS  [Surat al-Jāthiyah: 22].

Once you profess this testimony, you become a Muslim and must follow it with worshiping Allah in the manner He prescribed by performing prayer, paying Zakah, fasting, and performing Hajj if you are financially and physically capable.

Dated: 19/11/1441

Written by: Prof. Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah al-Suhaym

Former Professor of Creed at the Department of Islamic Studies

College of Education, King Saud University

Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia