The Original Concept Of God ()

 

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 The Original Concept Of God

By: FATEN Sabri

THIRD eDITION

2018

 Preface

This book is a brief summary to re-introduce people to the roots of their faith (the belief in one God and unifying Him in worship) through relevant verses from the Qur’an and other religious scriptures. It is an attempt to demonstrate to all open-minded people and truth-seekers that what was sent by God to all people through all messengers throughout history is one unique message (i.e. Pure Monotheism).  All God’s pious messengers endeavored to guide their people to the truth. But many people chose to follow their own understandings and interpretations, and thus went far from the prophetic teachings.

I pray to God that this book will be beneficial and a source of guidance and blessing, in this life and in the hereafter.

 1. Introduction

There is one message sent by God to all people, but the different accumulated interpretations throughout history lead to different beliefs and religions. The original concept of God explains that a Creator exists and He created the universe and all creatures. He sent to them one unique message. God is not different for different people but God is eternally the same. The concept of God in several religions is similar and this is discussed below and different perspectives from famous scholars with evidences from sacred books and scriptures are carefully researched and analyzed.

 2. The Existence of the Creator and His Wisdom

Is everything created by chance? If not, then who created the Creator of everything? “Who created God? “A common controversy from skeptics and questioners on how God was created. The controversy is complicated and arises from a false assumption that God was originally caused or created.

 2.1. The Primary Cause

Is God a thing that falls under the category of created things? Can this question be valid? We can’t ask what anger tastes like as it does not fall under the category of things we can eat, rather it is a thing that falls under a category of things that we can feel. Similarly, a question of what red color smells like is not valid since colors do not fall under the category of things that have smell. Everything need a cause, but God simply exists and is uncaused. Something had to have been in existence before everything else. God is the primary cause.

If we say that everything has a source, and this source itself has a source and if we keep up this pattern; each source causatively coming from a previous source, then the pattern will carry on perpetually. Therefore, logically this pattern must come to an end or rather to a beginning. It must reach a source that has no source.  That’s what we call the' Primary Source.'

The primary source must have existed before the beginning of time, because if it came into existence after the beginning of time, then that source itself must have had a beginning, there must be something that preceded its existence. The primary source must have preceded time and space. Without the sun, the moon, the planets, the stars, there would be no night or day; there would be no hours, days or months. Therefore, time and space must have come into existence simultaneously, and that is what science has proven.[1]

"And it is He who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon; all [heavenly bodies] in an orbit are swimming." (Qur'an 21:33)[2]

There is a difference between the primary cause and the primary event. The primary event according to science is the Big Bang, (a scientific theory about how the universe was created) but the primary cause should be what caused the Big Bang.

During ancient philosophy, Aristotle argued that the world must have existed from an eternal source. A primary source that is uncaused. ‘God to Aristotle is the first of all substances, the necessary first source of movement who is Himself unmoved. God is a being with everlasting life, and perfect blessedness, engaged in never-ending contemplation.’[3]

Other classical philosophers defined certain characteristics to the primary cause.

-         That it must have preceded time and space, energy and existence, therefore nature cannot possibly be the creator of the universe because nature itself is time, space and energy, and therefore the cause must have existed before nature.

-         It must also be omnipotent (having power over everything).

-         It must be capable of making decisions in order to make the decision to start creation.

-         It must have foresight, and must be omniscient (have perfect knowledge of all things).

-         It must be one because if this cause is perfect then it should not need any other cause with it.[4]

 2.2. Did it all happen by chance?

A rolling dice that has six sides can be thrown by a person in any way he or she likes. The probability of him or her obtaining the number 5 will occur by chance of 1/6. If they want to get the number 6, it will still happen by chance and the probability of obtaining the number 6 will be exactly equal to the probability of obtaining the number 5. However, for this chance to occur the person who threw the dice and the dice itself must exist. The chance cannot happen if nothing caused it. Therefore, chance cannot be the primary cause; it is a secondary result that depends on other factors.

Moreover, if you expose the dice to heat, it will simply melt and the shape of it will change. So, the chance or the probability of obtaining the number 5 this time will change since the dice will not be usable anymore. In fact, the word "chance" cannot be used to interpret anything. The universe cannot be created by chance. The chance by itself is nothing at all.

The most unbelievable thing about this universe is that it is an orderly universe with predictable rules. As Albert Einstein (the theoretical physicist) said: “The eternal mystery of the world is its comprehensibility. The fact that it is comprehensible is a miracle." [5]

The problem with putting our whole faith in science is that science is a shifting foundation; new discoveries are made every day which negate previous theories. Some of what we take as science is still theoretical. Even if we assume all science is proven and accurate, we still have a problem.  Science nowadays gives all glory to the discoverer and ignores the originator. For example – let’s say someone walks into a room and discovers a beautiful painting, very precisely executed, with unbelievable order and color symmetry, and then he walks out to tell people about it. Everybody is so impressed with the guy who discovered the painting that they forget to ask the more important question: ‘who painted it?’ This is what humans do; they are so impressed with scientific discoveries of the laws of nature and space that they forget the creativity of He who created the laws of gravity, centrifugal force, energy, matter and so on. All what scientists do is discover the laws. They didn’t originate these laws. The Creator did.

In 2007, Sir Anthony Flew, arguably the most influential atheistic philosopher of the twentieth century, published a book stating: ‘There is a God.’ Flew stated that "the most impressive arguments for God’s existence are those that are supported by recent scientific discoveries.

          Flew said again that his deism was the result of his growing empathy   with the insight of Einstein and other noted scientists that there had         to be an Intelligence behind the integrated complexity of the physical     universe and my own insight that the integrated complexity of life     itself – which is far more complex than the physical universe – can       only be explained in terms of an Intelligent Source.

Anthony Flew followed the scientific evidence and after a lifetime of atheism arrived at the conclusion that there is One God, who is non materialistic, does not change, has absolute power and absolute knowledge, and He is the source of all good. The main scientific facts that drive notable scientists to such a conclusion are:

1.     The Big Bang: The world has a beginning and every event has to have a cause.

2.     The world runs according to steady interrelated laws.

3.     The emergence of life from dead matter.

4.     The ability of the human mind which doesn’t understand itself, to think logically and in abstract terms, to be self-aware.

Charles Darwin who came up with the evolution theory (Theory puts forth traditional claim that all plants, animals and human beings are a result of blind unconscious accidental events) said: "To suppose that the eye, with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest possible degree."[6]

 2.3. The Creator’s Wisdom

·        There is no coercion in religion. Everyone is free to believe what they wish.  The law of attraction claims that we get what we expect (For the believer this is called: expecting the best from God). So, if we believe that we came to the Earth for nothing, just to eat, sleep and die and then we go back to nothing, then we might get even worse than what we expect. If we believe that we were created for an important purpose and that after death a beautiful afterlife awaits us, we might get better than what we expect. We can safely assume that the disappointment and fear of the atheist when he meets the Creator after death will be far worse than that of the believer if he finds nothing awaiting him. In any case, a believer will never lose as a life with faith is a far happier life by all accounts.

·        The Creator is unique and we should not try to project our attributes and failings to Him.   If a battery-operated toy could imagine, it would most probably think that it was made by a battery-operated being. Human beings fall into this trap: we cannot imagine that God exists in His own essence without a cause; because we see everything around us in need of such a cause.

·        Causation is a law for us who live in space and time. God, who created space and time, is necessarily transcendent in relation to both and it is an error on our part to think that He is bound by either. It is God who created the law of causation and we cannot consider Him as a subject to the law He created, therefore God does not change. He created the time, so He is not subjected to time. He does not go through the same stages of time that we go through, does not get tired, and does not need to put Himself in a physical form or descend to Earth. Therefore, we cannot see Him in this life because we are trapped in time and space, while He transcends both. For example: a person sitting in a windowless room can only see the room's interior. To see outside, he must leave the room; that is to say, he must overcome the room as a hindrance to see the outside.

·        God, though knowable by reason, is also known by conscience. Just as our thirst for water is proof that it exists, our yearning for justice is proof to us that a Just God exists.

·        When we are generous and rich, we invite others to food and drink because we want to fulfill our generosity. God is the most generous, the most merciful. He created us to bestow His blessings on us and provide His mercy. All beautiful human attributes are derived from His attributes.

·        Our deeds are foreknown to God in His Record but they are not preordained for us against our will. They are only preordained in His Prescience.  In the same way we may foresee in the light of knowledge of our children’s characters, that they will make a wrong choice before they actually make it. We did not impose their choice upon them against their will, even though we may have expected that choice. God preordains the intentions and hearts of man; if these are evil, man will come to evil; if good, good will be his fate. Predestination does not contradict with freedom of choice as God predestines us based on His complete knowledge of what our choices and intentions will be.[7]

·        Man, in his freedom, may act contrary to what satisfies God, but he cannot do anything in contradiction to His Will. God granted us freedom to transgress against His wishes (we disobey Him) but He gave no one the freedom to transcend His Will. This freedom is further affirmed by our experience that it is impossible under any pressure to compel the heart to accept anything it does not want to. We can force anyone through threats and force them to stay with us but no pressure whatsoever can make them love us.  God has safeguarded our hearts from all forms of compulsion and duress.  This is why God judges according to what is in the heart and rewards according to the intention, which is visible to no-one but Him.

·        Man has freedom of choice in relation to what he knows and controls; he is preordained with regard to what he does not know or control.  Judgment follows responsibility. Thus, God will not judge us for our physical appearance, our social status or tribal affiliations, nor will He punish us for failing to stop the sun in its orbit.[8]

·        God could have compelled Man to believe by revealing incontestable signs or miracles, and He could make us obey Him without giving us the choice, but compulsion is not a part of Divine Law.   He wants us to be free to obey or disobey as freedom with strife is more honorable to man than slavery with happiness; judgment and reward is meaningless without choice.[9]

·        Benevolence is the rule in the universe while evil is the exception. Evil in the universe is like the shaded spaces in a painting; if you come very near to the painting, you will see these parts as defects and faults; but if you draw back and take a general view of the painting as a whole, you will discover that the shades are necessary and indispensable in fulfilling an aesthetic function within the structure of the artwork. It is not possible for us to know health if disease did not exist, health glitters as a crown on our heads that is only known when we are ill. Likewise, it is impossible to know beauty if ugliness did not exist or to know which is normal without getting acquainted with the abnormal.[10]

·        The universe's imperfections are the essence of its perfection, just as the curving shape of the bow is the essential feature of its usefulness. ‘A straight-shaped bow’ would be unfit for shooting arrows. Hardships and sufferings sort out men and reveal their true nature. Sickness bequeaths immunity, suffering engenders strength. These tribulations are trials by which we know our true natures; they are tests which determine our degrees ranks in the sight of God.

·        Good comes from God, evil from ourselves. God sends the winds and makes the rivers flow but a greedy captain may overload his ship with people and goods and when it sinks, he curses fate and destiny.[11]

 3. What the Qur'an says about the Concept of God

Before listing what some religions say about God, this chapter will describe who God is in Islam and His characteristics. The answer to who is God will be entirely answered by God Himself through a collection of Qur'an verses, categorized into different aspects of God.

 3.1. God is the First

 Qur'an 57:3

-         He is the First and the Last, the Manifest and the Unseen, and He is, of all things, Knowing.

(That is, when there was nothing, He was, and when there will be nothing, He will be. He is the most Manifest of all the manifests, for whatever manifests itself in the world, does so only by His attributes and His works and His light. And He is the Most Hidden of all the hidden, for not only do the senses fail to perceive Him but the intellect and thought and imagination also cannot attain to His essence and reality).

 3.2. God is the Creator

 Qur'an 52:35-36

-         Or were they created by nothing, or were they the creators [of themselves]?

-         Or did they create the heavens[sky] and the earth? Rather, they are not certain.

 Qur'an 21:30

-         Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens[sky] and the earth were a joined entity, and We[12] separated them and made from water every living thing? Then will they not believe?

 3.3. God Created Time and Space

 Qur’an 10:5

-         It is He who made the sun a shining light and the moon a derived light and determined for it phases - that you may know the number of years and account [of time]. God has not created this except in truth. He details the signs for a people who know.

 Qur’an 41:9-12

-         Say, "Do you indeed disbelieve in He who created the earth in two days and attribute to Him equals? That is the Lord of the worlds."

-         And He placed on it (the earth) firmly-set mountains over its surface, and He blessed it and determined therein its [creatures'] sustenance in four days without distinction - for [the information] of those who ask.

-         Then He directed Himself to the heaven [sky] while it was smoke and said to it and to the earth, "Come [into being], willingly or by compulsion." They said, "We have come willingly."

-         Hence, He completed them as seven heavens[sky] within two days and inspired in each heaven its command. And We adorned the nearest heaven with lamps and as protection. That is the determination of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing.

 3.4. God Testifies that He is One

 Qur’an 3:18

-         God witnesses that there is no deity except Him, and [so do] the angels and those of knowledge - [that He is] maintaining [creation] in justice. There is no deity except Him, the Exalted in Might, the Wise.

 3.5. All Creatures Prostrate before the Creator

 Qur'an16:48-49

-         Have they not considered what things God has created? Their shadows incline to the right and to the left, prostrating to God, while they are humble.

-         And to God prostrates whatever is in the heavens[sky] and whatever is on the earth of creatures, and the angels [as well], and they are not arrogant.

 Qur’an 22:18

-         Do you not see that to God prostrates whoever is in the heavens[sky] and whoever is on the earth and the sun, the moon, the stars, the mountains, the trees, the moving creatures and many of the people? But upon many the punishment has been justified. And he whom God humiliates - for him there is no bestower of honor. Indeed, God does what He wills.

 3.6. All Creatures Praise the Creator Day and Night

 Qur’an 17:44

-         The seven heavens [sky] and the earth and whatever is in them exalt Him. And there is not a thing except that it exalts [Allah][13] by His praise, but you do not understand their [way of] exalting. Indeed, He is ever forbearing and forgiving.

 3.7. God Created Adam[14] (The first man)

 Qur’an 2:29-38

-         It is He who created for you all of that which is on the earth. Then He directed Himself to the heaven [sky], [His being above all creation], and made them seven heavens, and He is Knowing of all things.

-         And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels: "Indeed, I will make upon the earth a successive authority." They said, "Will You place upon it one who causes corruption therein and sheds blood, while we declare Your praise and sanctify You?" God said, "Indeed, I know that which you do not know."

-         And He taught Adam the names - all of them. Then He showed them to the angels and said, "Inform Me of the names of these, if you are truthful."

-         They said, "Exalted are You; we have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Indeed, it is You who is the Knowing, the Wise."

-         He said, "O Adam, inform them of their names." And when he had informed them of their names, He said: "Did I not tell you that I know the unseen [aspects] of the heavens[sky] and the earth? And I know what you reveal and what you have concealed.”

-         And [mention] when We said to the angels, "Prostrate before Adam"; so, they prostrated, except for Satan (Lucifer). He refused and was arrogant and became of the disbelievers.

-         And We said: "O Adam, dwell, you and your wife, in Paradise and eat there from in [ease and] abundance from wherever you will. But do not approach this tree, lest you be among the wrongdoers."

-         But Satan caused them to slip out of it and removed them from that [condition] in which they had been. And We said: "Go down, [all of you], as enemies to one another, and you will have upon the earth a place of settlement and provision for a time."

-         Then Adam received from his Lord [some] words, and He accepted his repentance. Indeed, it is He who is the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful.

-         We said, "Go down from it, all of you. And when guidance comes to you from Me, whoever follows My guidance - there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.

 3.8. Everything around us is Created for our Benefit

 Qur’an 31:20

-         Do you not see that God has made subject to you whatever is in the heavens[sky] and whatever is in the earth and amply bestowed upon you His favors, [both]apparent and unapparent? But of the people is he who disputes about God without knowledge or guidance or an enlightening Book [from Him].

 Qur’an 2:164

-         Indeed, in the creation of the heavens[sky] and earth, and the alternation of the night and the day, and the [great] ships which sail through the sea with that which benefits people, and what God has sent down from the heaven [sky] of rain, giving life thereby to the earth after its lifelessness and dispersing therein every [kind of] moving creature, and [His] directing of the winds and the clouds controlled between the heaven [sky] and the earth are signs for a people who use reason.

 Qur’an 17:70

-         And We have certainly honored the children of Adam (Mankind) and carried them on land and sea and provided for them of the good things and preferred them over much of what We have created, with [definite] preference.

 3.9. The Children of Adam (Humans) Testified That God is One

 Qur’an 7:172

-         And [mention] when your Lord took from the children of Adam - from their loins - their descendants and made them testify of themselves, [saying to them], "Am I not your Lord?" They said, "Yes, we have testified." [This] - lest you should say on the day of Resurrection, "Indeed, we were of this unaware."

-         (This event took place at the time of the creation of Adam. Apart from the prostration of the angels before Adam and the proclamation that man would be God's vicegerent on earth, all the future progeny of Adam were gathered, and were endowed with both existence and consciousness in order to bear witness to God's Lordship).

 3.10. Unifying God in Worship was the Message of All Messengers of God

 Qur’an 11:25-26

-         And We had certainly sent Noah (a prophet) to his people, [saying], "Indeed, I am to you a clear Warner.

-         That you do not worship except God. Indeed, I fear for you the punishment of a painful day."

 Qur’an 11:61

-         And to [the people of] Thamud [We sent] their brother Salih (a prophet). He said: "O my people, worship God (the Creator); you have no deity other than Him. He has produced you from the earth and settled you in it so ask forgiveness of Him and then repent to Him. Indeed, my Lord is near and responsive."

 Qur’an 7:65

-         And to [the people of]Aad [We sent] their brother Hud (a prophet). He said: "O my people, worship God; you have no deity other than Him. Then will you not fear Him?"

 Qur’an 7:85

-         And to [the people of] Madyan [We sent] their brother Shu'ayb (a prophet). He said: "O my people worship God; you have no deity other than Him. There has come to you clear evidence from your Lord. So, fulfill the measure and weight and do not deprive people of their due and cause not corruption upon the earth after its reformation. That is better for you, if you should be believers."

 Qur’an 37:123-126

-         And indeed, Elias was from among the messengers.

-         When he said to his people: "Will you not fear God?

-         Do you call upon Ba'l[an idol] and leave the best of creators,

-         God, your Lord and the Lord of your first forefathers?"

 Qur’an 2:132-133

-         And Abraham instructed his sons and [so did] Jacob, [saying]: "O my sons, indeed God has chosen for you this religion, so do not die except while you are Muslims [in submission]."

-         Or were you witnesses when death approached Jacob, when he said to his sons: "What will you worship after me?" They said: "We will worship your God and the God of your fathers, Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac - one God. And we are Muslims [in submission] to Him."

 Qur’an 2:136

-         Say, [O believers], "We have believed in God and what has been revealed to us and what has been revealed to Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the Descendants and what was given to Moses and Jesus and what was given to the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and we are Muslims [in submission] to Him."

 Qur’an 12:38-40

-         [Prophet Joseph said] and I have followed the religion of my fathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. And it was not for us to associate anything with God. That is from the favor of God upon us and upon the people, but most of the people are not grateful.

-         [my] two companions of prison, are separate lords better or God, the One, the Prevailing?

-         You worship not besides Him except [mere] names you have named [them], you and your fathers, for which God has sent down no authority. Legislation is not but for God. He has commanded that you worship not except Him. That is the correct religion, but most of the people do not know.

 Qur'an19:30

-         [Jesus said]"Indeed, I am the servant of God. He has given me the Scripture and made me a prophet. "

 Qur'an 19:35

-         It is not [befitting] for God to take a son; exalted is He! When He decrees an affair, He only says to it, ‘Be’ and it is.

 Qur'an 19:36

-         [Jesus said] "And indeed, God is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him. That is a straight path. "

 Qur'an 5:72-73

-         They have certainly disbelieved who say, ‘God is the Messiah, the son of Mary’ while the Messiah has said, ‘O Children of Israel, worship God, my Lord and your Lord.’ Indeed, he who associates others with God - God has forbidden him Paradise, and his refuge is the Fire. And there are not for the wrongdoers any helpers.

-         They have certainly disbelieved who say, ‘God is the third of three.’ And there is no god except one God. And if they do not desist from what they are saying, there will surely afflict the disbelievers among them a painful punishment.

 Qur'an14:6-8

-         And [recall, O Children of Israel] when Moses said to His people: "Remember the favor of God upon you when He saved you from the people of Pharaoh, who were afflicting you with the worst torment and were slaughtering your [newborn] sons and keeping your females alive. And in that was a great trial from your Lord.

-         And [remember] when your Lord proclaimed, 'If you are grateful, I will surely increase you [in favor]; but if you deny, indeed, My punishment is severe.' "

-         And Moses said, "If you should disbelieve, you and whoever is on the earth entirely - indeed, God is Free of need and Praiseworthy."

 Qur'an27:15

And We had certainly given to David and Solomon knowledge, and they said: "Praise [is due] to God, who has favored us over many of His believing servants."

 3.11 The Islamic Perspective of the Creator’s Wisdom

·        There is wisdom behind natural disasters and suffering:

Ø To teach us that we must adhere to God's natural and moral laws as natural disasters may happen when Man violates God’s laws.

Ø Suffering of the righteous comes with promises of great reward and blessings from God.

Ø Natural disasters bring out the best in some people in terms of the display of elevated human values and charity.

In any case, it must be noted that God did not make this world permanent. This world is temporary and everything in life is limited by time. When its time finishes, it dies or it ends. Neither the good things of this world are everlasting, nor are the bad things eternal. We are here for a short time and we are being tested. Those who pass this test will find an eternal world that is perfect and permanent. Those who fail this test shall see the consequences of their sins and corruption.

·        A person in Paradise is rewarded as per his/her deeds, good actions, and duties in this world. And the people of Hellfire will suffer torment according to their quantity of sins and faults. Some people's souls are in reality blazes of envy, jealousy and bitterness; they are flames of wrath and resentment. Such souls can never live in peace or endure just one hour without causing conflict and setting fire to everything that surrounds them; for fire is their element and natural habitat. It is a just judgment that Hellfire be their final abiding place. It will be like placing a thing in its rightful element.  They do not deserve the beauty and peaceful state of Paradise as they disdained peace while on Earth.

·        Everything is in the hand of God; however, we have a role to play. Our role in life is to exert our utmost effort in our doing (studies, work, etc.) and then expect the best from God.

·        God created us to worship Him as He is the Master of the universe "And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me."(Qur'an 51:56)

He gave us life, health and all what we have in this life, so it makes no sense to worship and ask His creatures instead of Him. As an example: God gave us health, so why should we ask saints, priests, idols, prophets, or any other creature to heal us when we get sick.

·        A mother will not like it if her children call their nanny 'Mum', for she has the exclusive rights to that name.  Similarly, God, the Almighty, is entitled exclusively to His title. God says: “Indeed, God does not forgive association with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. And he who associates others with God has certainly fabricated a tremendous sin." (Qur'an 4:48)

·        Some people believe it is enough to be kind and charitable to other human beings. It makes no sense for an employee to keep his relationship with his colleagues perfect while ignoring the relationship with his manager. Our relationship with the Creator should be the best relationship in our life.

·        Many people go through a period of searching and doubt, before they find a path to the Creator, they are like a lost child searching for his mother. Once they start the relationship with God, they finally find peace.

 4. Your God is One God

The Creator has sent several messengers since Prophet Adam, with various books (revelations) including the Qur'an, and other religious scriptures. Originally, each of these books contained the same exact message as the Qur'an (believe in One God and unify Him in worship), however several of these books were changed by people. Some similarities can still be detected that prove that the core of each of these books is the same, and that they are all sent from the same source, but they were corrupted and they diverted from the original message. Qur'an came as the last book with the original message and God preserved it from alteration. Chapters four through nine list various verses from each of mentioned religious scriptures about the concept of God and the prophecy of the last Prophet (Prophet Muhammad).

 4.1. In Islam

 (Qur'an 112)

Say, "He is Allah, The One and Only, Allah the Eternal Refuge. He neither begets nor is born. Nor is there to Him any equivalent."

 4.2. In Christianity/Judaism

 (Bible, Mark 12:29)

"Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord."

 (Bible, Isaiah43:11)

"I am the Lord; and besides me there is no savior."

 (Bible, Isaiah 46:9)

 "I am Lord, and there is none else, there is no god besides me."

 4.3. In Hinduism

 (Chandogya Upanishad 6:2-1)

 "He is One only without a second."

 4.4. In Sikhism

 (Sri Guru Granth Sahib, vol:1, Japuji verse:1)

"There exists but one God, who is called The True. The Creator."

 4.5. In Zoroastrianism (the religion that was practiced in Persia in pre-Islamic era)

 (Dasatir, Ahura Mazda. Refer to Yasna 31:7&11)

"He is one; He is without an origin or end. He has no father or mother, wife or son."

 In Buddhism

Due to ignorance of the true concepts of the teachings of Buddha, many Buddhists believe that in Buddhism there is no place for the belief of God. But many theologians found proofs that Buddha emphasized the belief in One God and that he prophesied the coming of Prophet Muhammad.

 (Quotation from Book title “India in Primitive Christianity” - Page 85)

"Much longing after the things (of this life) is disobedience, I again declare; not less so is the laborious ambition of dominion by a prince who would be a propitiator of heaven. Confess and believe in God, who is the worthy object of obedience.  For equal to this (belief), I declare unto you, ye shall not find such a means of propitiating heaven. Oh strive ye to obtain this inestimable treasure."

{A famous scholar, Arthur Lily, says that the following was seen as an inscription on a stone. (What Buddha's disciples thought about God, spirit, and man's future)}.

 5. Don't Make an Image of God, Nothing is like Him

 5.1. In Islam

 (Qur'an 42:11)

"[He is] Creator of the heavens and the earth. He has made for you from yourselves, mates, and among the cattle, mates; He multiplies you thereby. There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing."

 5.2. In Christianity/Judaism

 (Bible, Exodus 20:3-5)

"Thou shall have no other gods before me. Thou shall not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; Thou shall not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them; for I the Lord am jealous."

 5.3. in Hinduism

 (Vedas, Svetasvatara Upanishad: 4:19, 4:20, 6:9)

"Of Him there are neither parents nor lord."

"His form is not to be seen, no one sees Him with the eye."

"There is no likeness to Him."

 6. Worship Him Alone

 6.1. In Islam

 (Qur'an 18:110)

"Say (Muhammad), I am only a man like you, to whom has been revealed that your god is one God. So, whoever would hope for the meeting with his Lord - let him do righteous work and not associate in the worship of his Lord anyone."

 6.2. In Christianity

 (Mathew 4:10)

"Jesus said to him: away from me, Satan! For it is written: 'Worship the Lord your God, and serve him only.' "

 6.3. In Hinduism

 (Yajurveda 40:9)

"They enter darkness, those who worship the natural elements (Air, Water, Fire, etc.). They sink deeper in darkness, those who worship sambhuti (created things like idol, stone,etc.)."

 7. God Sent Prophets to All Nations

 Qur'an35:24

Indeed, We have sent you with the truth as a bringer of good tidings and a Warner. And there was no nation but that there had passed within it a Warner.

 Qur'an16:36

And We certainly sent into every nation a messenger, [saying], ‘Worship God and avoid Taghut (Satan and every leader of misguidance)’And among them were those whom God guided, and among them were those upon whom error was [deservedly] decreed. So, proceed through the earth and observe how was the end of the deniers.

 Qur'an17:15

Whoever is guided is only guided for [the benefit of] his soul. And whoever errs only errs against it. And no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another. And never would We punish until We sent a messenger.

 8. All Prophets from the First to the Last Preached the Same Message

Ø There is no god except The Only God, the Creator and Sustainer of the whole universe and its contents.

Ø Pray only to Him, and no others.

Ø Believe and follow the messengers (of that period). (The messengers prophesied the coming of last Prophet- Muhammad, and urged their followers to believe in him and follow him if they reach his time).

Ø Do good and avoid evil.

 9. The Prophecy of the Coming of the Final Prophet (Muhammad)

 9.1. In Christianity/Judaism

 (Deuteronomy 18:18)

"I will raise up for them a prophet like you (Moses) from among their brethren, like unto thee, and I will put my words in his mouth. He will tell them everything I command him."

Moses in the Old Testament prophesied the coming of Prophet Muhammad who is the last prophet in Islam.

From the verse above, it is clearly understood that it refers to Prophet Muhammad.

-         Moses and Muhammad both brought new covenants to the people of the time. Jesus did not bring any new covenant, but he came to affirm and testify existing laws brought by Moses as he (Jesus) himself says: "Think not that I am come to destroy the laws, or the prophets. I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill." (Mathews 5:17)

-         Moses and Muhammad both had natural birth.

-         Both Moses and Muhammad died natural death.

-         Both Moses and Muhammad finally attained leadership and authority over their society.

-         The verse says ‘from among their brethren.’ Ishmael and Isaac are sons of the same father, Prophet Abraham; so they are brothers. Thereby, the children of one are ‘brethren’ to the children of the other.

§  The children of Jacob (son of Isaac) are Jews and the children of Ishmael -who are Arabs-are their ‘brethren.’ The Bible affirms this: "And he (Ishmael) died in the presence of all his brethren."(Genesis 25:18)

§  The children of Jacob (son of Isaac) are brothers of Ishmaelite (Arabs). Likewise, Muhammad is from among the brethren of the Israelis (followers of Moses) because Muhammad was a descendent of Ishmael - the son of Abraham - fulfilling the prophecy of the verse ‘from among their brethren.’ (Deuteronomy 18:18)

§  The verse goes on: ‘and I will put my words into his mouth.’ Not even one Qur'anic verse is a word of Muhammad. They are words which he heard through Angel Gabriel and repeated word for word. None of them are his words. He merely repeated what “was put into his mouth."[15]

-            Jesus has confirmed this as well by saying: "I have much more to say to you, more than you can bear. But when he, the Spirit of Truth comes, he will guide you into all truth. He will not speak on his own. He will speak only what he hears and he will tell you what is yet to come." (John 16:12-13)

 9.2. In Hinduism

 (Bhavishya Purana, Parva: 3 Part3, chapter3; verse5-8) :

‘A'Milechar' (a foreigner) will appear as a teacher of a new religion, with the help of his friends. His name would be 'Mahamat.' A king of this land will give great respect to his teaching; and praise him. Cleansing himself with Ganges water and Panjagouyam, he would say, 'I whole- heartedly follow you.' He (Mahamat) would be devoid of all sins. Coming from dry land (desert), he would be very holy, he will fight against evil forces, and he will gather warriors, for this purpose. He will give protection even to enemies."

-         (King of this land giving great respect to Mahamat's teachings) refers to a South Indian King by name of Heramaan, who had trade contacts with Arabs and later became a Muslim at the time of Prophet Muhammad.

-         "Cleansing himself with Ganges water and Panjagouyam." This expression means the Purified one. [16]

 Atharva Veda, Book (KuntapSukta) book 20 Hymn 127 verses 1-2

"He is Narashansah or the praised one. He is Kaurama: the prince of peace or the emigrant, who is safe, even amongst a host of 60,090 enemies." "He is a camel-riding Rishi, whose chariot touches the heaven."

-         ‘Narashansah’ "Man of praise" refers to Prophet Muhammad. The actual meaning of the Arabic word 'Muhammad' means ‘be praised.’ It is not known exactly how many enemies Prophet Muhammad had at his time; but it is however established that there were thousands.

When he made his emigration from Makkah (the city he was born in, but had to leave due to plot of his assassination) to Medina, he went on camels.

 9.3. In Zoroastrianism

 In Zend Avesta Farvard in Yasht chapter 28 verse 129(Sacred Books of the East, volume 23, Zend Avesta Part II pg. 220)

"Whose name will be the Victorious, Soeshyant and whose name will be Astvat-ereta. He will be Soeshyant (The Beneficent one) because he will benefit the whole bodily world. He will be Astvat-ereta (he who makes the people, bodily creatures rise up) because as a bodily creature and as a living being he will stand against the destruction of the bodily (being) creatures to withstand the drug of the two footed brood, to withstand the evil done by the faithful (idolaters and the like and the errors of the Mazdaynians)."

-         This Prophecy applies to no other person more perfectly than it does to Prophet Muhammad. The Prophet was not only victorious when he returned to Makkah with army of 10000; he also forgave all his enemies by saying:"There shall be no reproof against you this day."

-         Soeshyant means the 'praised one' which translated in Arabic means Muhammad.

-         Astvat-ereta is derived from the root word Astu which in Sanskrit as well as in Zend means ‘to praise.’ The infinitive Sitaudan in present day Persian means praising. It can also be derived from the Persian root word istadan which would mean ‘one who makes a thing rise up. ‘Therefore, Astvat-ereta means the one who praised, which is the exact translation of the Arabic word 'Ahmed' which is another name for Prophet Muhammad. The Prophecy clearly mentions both the names of the Prophet Muhammad.

-         The prophecy further says that he will benefit the whole world and the Qur’an testifies this chapter 21 verse 107:"And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a Mercy to the worlds."

 (Dasatir - Verse 14)

"When Persian morality declines to lowest, a man will appear from Arabia. Those following him will choke the Persian Crown, religion and everything. The authority and control of Persia will go to them. The idols in their permanent temple (Ka'aba) built by their ancestors will be removed. But, people will give immense honor to the empty temple. Das and Bulk (two big cities of that time in Persia) will fall. The learned people and others of Persia will join those who follow him."

 9.4. In Buddhism

 Chakkavatti Sinhnad Suttanta D.III,76

"There will arise in the world a Buddha named Maitreya (the benevolent one) a holy one, a supreme one, an enlightened one, endowed with wisdom in conduct, auspicious, knowing the universe. What he realized through divine revelation (supernatural knowledge) he will convey to this universe. He will preach his religion, glorious in its origin, glorious at its climax, glorious at the end, in the spirit and the letter. He will proclaim a religion and a like life do proclaim. He will keep up the society of devotees numbering many thousands, even as now I keep up a society of devotees numbering many hundreds."

The word ‘Maitreya’ or ‘Metta’ in Pali language and all corresponding words used in Burmese, Chinese, Tibetian and Japanese, carry the same meaning; namely same as ‘Rahmat’ in Arabic, which means ‘Mercy.’

(Prophet Muhammad has been proclaimed by God Himself in Qur'an as Mercy for the whole world). "And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a Mercy to the worlds."(Qur'an 21:107)[17]

-         Gautama Buddha did not advocate worship of him or of anyone or anything else, and the religious path which he professed was the same as the path that had been adopted and prophesied by earlier Buddha's as well. He used the word Buddha in the same sense as 'prophet', which means a person who has been enlightened through divine revelation.

 The Sacred Books of the East volume 35pg.225

"It is said that I am not an only Buddha upon whom the leadership and order is dependent. After me another Buddha 'Maitreya' of such and such virtues will come. I am now the leader of hundreds; he will be the leader of thousands."

 Gospel of Buddha by Carus pg.217 and 218(from Ceylon sources)

"Ananda said to the Blessed One:' who shall teach us when thou are gone?'

And the Blessed One replied:I am not the first Buddha who came upon the earth nor shall I be the last. In due time another Buddha will arise in the world."

 "Arshagyanam"(Page282) that Buddha said

"All must believe in 'Maitreya' "the prophet to come.

 10. Summary

-         There is a Creator to the universe and He is One. The question ‘who created the Creator’ is not valid.

-         The Creator is Self-Sufficient. He is apart from His creation, it does not befit His Majesty to take a son or wife, or to beget or to be begotten, and there is no similitude to Him.

-          Ever since Man appeared on earth - from the time of Adam- the Creator appointed the most righteous person in a particular society as a prophet during that period to guide mankind towards truth and the ultimate goal of reaching Him. He would send a prophet whenever mankind slipped into moral disaster and aimless lives, and after an earlier prophets' message was corrupted and seriously adulterated.

-         The Creator sent the same message to prophets of all nations. A simple straightforward message and one condition of salvation: Belief in One God and to unify Him in worship. Every prophet was the way for his followers in his time to get the salvation, and that was by following his teachings; worshiping like the prophet does, not worshipping the prophet himself.

-         While many of the prophets and messengers that God has sent to different nations are mentioned by name in the Qur'an (i.e. Jesus, Moses, Abraham, Noah, David, Solomon, Ismail, Isaac, Joseph, etc.), others are not mentioned. Therefore, the possibility that other famous religious teachers such as the Hindu Lords Rama, Krishna, and Gautama Buddha were prophets of God cannot be out rightly negated." And We have already sent messengers before you [Muhammad]. Among them are those [whose stories] We have related to you, and among them are those [whose stories] We have not related to you. And it was not for any messenger to bring a sign [or verse] except by permission of God. So when the command of God comes, it will be concluded in truth, and the falsifiers will thereupon lose [all]."(Qur'an 40:78)

-         The Ark of Prophet Noah [18]was saved with the believers inside it and was the rebirth of Pure Monotheism as a religion of all people. People started their life and taught their children how to worship God alone without any partner.  But later on many people followed their desires and went far from the prophetic teachings.

-         Every child is born sinless. Everyone can call upon their Creator without any intermediary. If the child is left alone without parents or any teachings, he will grow up worshipping the Creator alone. At the age of puberty, he will be responsible for his actions and he has a choice to remain monotheist worshiping his Creator alone, or to change his natural religion and take a wrong path by praying to God through an intermediary (Jesus, Mary, Buddha, Idols, Muhammad... etc.).

-         Despite claims to the contrary, all people seek refuge in the Creator of the universe and resort to Him alone in adversities and difficulties. Deep in their hearts- they consider The One Holy Power in Heavens as a solution to their problems, a fulfillment to their needs, and the relief of their distress. They consider that their success and victory are dependent on His Will and Kindness. (For example: during an incident of an airplane crash, all the passengers from different religious backgrounds 'Buddhist, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, Atheists, etc.,' pray to the Power that exists in Heavens to rescue them).

-         The similarities between religions come from God and the differences arose from mankind who created different paths to the Creator. If everyone worships the Creator God alone without partners or intermediaries (saints, priests, idols or prophets), we would all be united. This is the key to harmony and unity to the world. God said: "O People of the Scripture come to common terms between us and you, that we worship none other than God, and do not associate with Him anybody else and do not take one another as lords instead of God." (Qur'an 3:64)

-         Atheism advanced because of the very complicated concept of God in other religions which contradicts the pure simple concept of God in human being's hearts. Other reasons which have led people to atheism are the unreasonable demands and orders from their clergy and religious institutions, who often use religion as an excuse to gain worldly and political benefits.

-         All what exist in the universe is under God's possession and domination. He has comprehensive knowledge, prevalent power and absolute control.  Everything is subjected to His Absolute Knowledge and Will. The Sun, planets and galaxies operate in precision, without fail since they were created. This same precision applied to the humans' creation. Perfect harmony and order between body and soul show that God never puts souls of human being into bodies of animals and never let him wander between plants and insects (reincarnation), in case which the person will never know what his past was in his last life. God made the human being civilized innately and gave him mind and knowledge and assigned him vicegerent for Earth and commander over other creatures. God will never humiliate human beings. Day of Judgment, Heavens [Paradise] and Hellfire represent the Justice of the Creator, when sins and good deeds of humans are weighed as The Holy Qur'an says: "whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it, and whoever does an atom's weight of evil will see it." (Qur'an 99:7-8)

-          The world without laws would be a jungle without compassion or morals. God’s commandments are a mercy to mankind.

-         There is no superiority of one race over another. God tests each individual on the basis of their piety and righteousness. God said: "O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of God is the most righteous of you. Indeed, God is Knowing and Acquainted."(Qur'an 49:13)

-         This life, which ends in death, is not our final destination; The Creator created human beings for a great purpose and favored them above many of His creatures.  The wise human being is the one who plans for life after death. “Every soul will taste death, and you will only be given your [full] compensation on the Day of Resurrection. So he who is drawn away from the Fire and admitted to Paradise has attained [his desire]. And what is the life of this world except the enjoyment of delusion."(Qur'an3:185)

-         No compulsion in religion. "There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion. The right course has become clear from the wrong. So whoever disbelieves in Taghut (Satan and every leader of misguidance) and believes in God has grasped the most trustworthy handhold with no break in it. And God is Hearing and Knowing."(Qur'an2:256)

-         The greatness and uniqueness of Islam (which means total submission to the Creator and the worship of Him alone without any intermediary) when compared to any other religion is evidenced in three things:

1.     Islam has retained the genuine concept of Oneness of God, devoid of any philosophy or complexity.

2.     It has the only true preserved Scripture – The Word of God. The full text of the Qur'an is available in the exact form as uttered by Prophet Muhammad at the time of its revelation and in the original language in which it was revealed.

3.     The teachings of the Prophet Muhammad were transmitted through confirmed chains of authenticated narrators.

 References:

§  Lillie, Arthur. India in Primitive Christianity. n.d. 85.

§  "Arshagyanam." n.d. 282.

§  "Atharvaveda Hymn 127." Kuntap Sukta. 20th. n.d. Verse 1-2.

§  Avesta, Zend. "Sacred Books of the East." Vol. 23. n.d. 220.

§  Carus. "Gospel of Buddha." n.d. 217 , 218.

§  Chakkavatti Sinhnad Suttanta D. Vol. III. n.d.

§  "Chapter 7 : Oller and Omdahl." Moreland, J. P. The Creation Hypothesis : Scientific Evidence for an Intelligent Designer. 1994. 274.

§  "Dasatir." n.d.: Verse 14.

§  Mahmoud, Mustafa. Dialogue with an Athiest. 1990.

§  Naik, Zakir. Prophecy On The Coming of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) in Other Scriptures . n.d. 2017.

§  —. The Concept of God in Major Religions. n.d.

§  "Parva 3- Chapter 3." Purana, Bhavishya. n.d. 5-8.

§  "Physics and Reality." Franklin Institue (1936).

§  "Prophet Muhammed SAW in Other World Religion Scriptures." n.d. Scribd. 2017.

§  "Sacred Books of the East." n.d. Volume 35. 225.

§  Suleiman, Fadil. Who Created God. 05 09 2016. 2017.

§  Vedas. "Svestasvatara Upanishad." n.d. 4:19, 4:20, 6:9.

§  "Zend Avesta Part II." Sacred Books of the East. Vol. 23. n.d. 220.

I bear witness that there is no god worthy of worship except one God; the Creator (Allah), that He has no partner or son, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His final messenger. I bear witness that the messengers of God are true, I bear witness that Heavens (Paradise) and Hellfire are true.



[1]FadilSuleiman, https://solution-for-peace.com/2016/09/05/answer-to-who-created-god/#.Wz0OfZ-EZ-E.

[2]The Qur'an is the last sacred book sent by God, but not the only book, as Muslims believe in all the earlier revelations of God (the scriptures of Abraham, the book of David, the Torah, the Gospel,etc.). Muslims believe that the original message in all the sacred books is Pure Monotheism (unifying God in worship). Unlike the Divine scriptures that preceded, the Qur'an has not been kept in the hands of any particular group or clergymen of allMuslims which would lead to the misinterpretation or alteration of it. On the contrary, the Qur'an has always been within the reach of Muslims who recite it in their daily prayers, and they refer to it for all their concerns.  Muslims read and recite the same Qur'anic text that was read and recited during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad and his companions. Not a single letter has been added or removed from the Qur'an. The language of the Qur'an, the prophecies which came true, the accuracy in historical accounts, the mathematical inimitability and scientific accuracy, all prove that the Qur'an could not have been produced by a man who lived in Arabia in the 7th century and who could not read or write. God the Almighty challenged the Arabs and the non-Arabs to bring forth a book similar to the one He revealed, even though the Arabs at that time were masters of eloquence and rhetoric, they were unable to meet the challenge, and they realized that the Qur'an could not be from any other than God, the Lord of the universe.

[3]Science and Philosophy https://sciphilos.info/docs_pages/docs_Aristotle_css.html

[4]Fadil Suleiman, Scholar)https://solution-for-peace.com/2016/09/05/answer-to-who-created-god/#.Wz0OfZ-EZ-E.

[5]Franklin Institute Journal March 1936 ‘Physics and Reality.’

[6]"Chapter 7:Oller and Omdahl." Moreland, J. P. The Creation Hypothesis: Scientific

[7]Dr. Mustafa Mahmud (Dialogue with an Atheist)

7-10 ibid

11Dr. Mustafa Mahmud (Dialogue with an Atheist)

[12]The reference of God to Himself as WE or US in many verses of the Qur'an denotes Grandeur and Power in Arabic. In the English language this is known as the royal WE, where a plural pronoun is used to refer to a single person holding a high office, such as a monarch. For the avoidance of doubt, the Qur'an has consistently reminded us of the SINGULAR pronoun in reference to God, when called upon by His servants.

[13]The Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Middle East use the word "Allah" to refer to God, which refers to The Only True God.

The word Allah was mentioned in the earlier version of the Old Testament 89 times. (Refer to Genesis 2:4, Book of Daniel 6:20 Hebrew and Arabic Bible).The word 'Allah' appears in the original Sanskrit text. (Reg Veda - Book 2 hymn 1, Verse 11).

[14]Adimanav, Aadim in Sanskrit.

[15]Prophecy On The Coming of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) in Other Scriptures – ZakirNaik

http://www.irfi.org/articles3/articles_4601_4700/prophecy%20on%20the%20coming%20of%20prophet%20muhammadhtml.htm

[16]https://www.scribd.com/document/25044340/Prophet-Muhammad-s-a-w-in-Other-World-Religion-Scriptures

[17]Prophecy On The Coming of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) in Other Scriptures – ZakirNaik

http://www.irfi.org/articles3/articles_4601_4700/prophecy%20on%20the%20coming%20of%20prophet%20muhammadhtml.htm

[18]Ma-nu in Sanskrit.